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Unformatted text preview: Chem R340 Exam 2 Study Topics Chapter 4 1. Nomenclature of alkenes a. naming alkenes using systematic nomenclature b. structure of alkenes and geometric isomerism i. sp 2 hybridized carbons, planar bond, no rotation of double bond ii. cis/trans isomers of alkenes iii. naming alkenes using the E,Z system 2. Stability of alkenes a. the more alkyl-substitutuents there are on an alkene the more stable it is b. trans alkenes have less steric strain than similar cis alkenes 3. Reactions of alkenes and curved arrow mechanisms a. electrophiles, "electron loving", can accept a pair of electrons b. nucleophiles, "nucleus loving", have a pair of electrons to share with a nucleus c. curved arrows show the movement of electrons i. the electrons move from the base of the arrow to where it is pointing ii. double headed arrows show the movement of 2 electrons iii. single headed arrows show the movement of 1 electron iv. curved arrows show how bonds break and form during a reaction mechanism d. electrophilic addition of hydrogen halides (like HBr) to alkenes i. mechanism ii. reaction coordinate diagram, reactants, transition states, intermediates, and products Chapter 5 1. Addition reactions of alkenes a. carbocation stabilities i. (most stable) tertiary > secondary > primary > methyl cation (least stable) b. Markovnikov rule i. the rich get richer (hydrogen rich carbons get more hydrogen) c. types of addition reactions and mechanisms i. addition of hydrogen halides to alkenes ii. addition of water to alkenes iii. addition of alcohols to alkenes iii....
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