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R340Exam3StudyTopics_000

R340Exam3StudyTopics_000 - Chem R340 Exam 3 Study Topics...

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Chem R340 Exam 3 Study Topics Chapter 8 1. Aromaticity a. criteria for aromaticity i. aromatic molecules must have an uninterrupted cloud of π electrons above and below the plane of the molecule 1. must be cyclic 2. every atom of the ring must have a p orbital 3. each p orbital must overlap with p orbitals on either side of it ii. the π electron cloud must have an odd number of pairs of electrons b. aromatic compounds are planar c. heterocyclic compounds can be aromatic 2. Electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction a. general mechanism b. halogenation c. nitration d. sulfonation e. Friedel-Crafts acylation f. Friedel-Crafts alkylation Chapter 9 1. Alkyl halide reactivity (polar bond) 2. Nucleophilic substitution reactions a. S N 2 i. bimolecular reaction, rate dependence 2nd order ii. reaction mechanism 1. inversion of stereochemistry iii. factors that effect S N 2 reactions 1. steric effects, less substituted carbons are more reactive in S N 2 2. leaving groups, weaker bases are better leaving groups
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3. nucleophiles, stronger bases are better nucleophiles b. S N 1 i. rate determining step is unimolecular, rate dependence 1st order ii. reaction mechanism 1. racemization of stereochemistry iii. factors that effect S N 1 reactions 1. stability of carbocations, more substituted alkyl halides react more rapidly in S N
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