3. Climate System - The Climate System Global climate is...

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The Climate System Global climate is: Driven by solar radiation (Earth’s external heat engine) Composed of diverse, interrelated components that function as a whole
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Components of the Climate System Atmosphere Geosphere - land Cryosphere -ice Hydrosphere -ocean Biosphere - Vegetation - Anthrosphere
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Climate System Fig. 1.1 Bigg
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Systems Approach Systems Comprised of diverse components that function as a whole Climate System Flow of energy and mass between components Change in one component will affect other components Linked (coupled) interactions
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Climate System Example of coupling Increase seafloor spreading rate (volcanism) More CO 2 to atmosphere Warmer climate Melt ice Raise sea level Alters ocean circulation Alters distribution of nutrients- productivity Impact on CO 2 ….
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Climate System Example of coupling Increase seafloor spreading rate (volcanism) geosphere More CO 2 to atmosphere atmosphere Warmer climate Melt ice cryosphere Raise sea level Alters ocean circulation hydrosphere Alters distribution of nutrients- productivity biosphere Impact on CO 2 …. atmosphere...
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Climate System Interactions : Complex Each component works at a different rate Feedbacks Complicated Nonlinear patterns of variation
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Components of the Climate System Discuss each component in terms of: Response time- how quickly it responds to inputs Heat capacity- amount of energy that must be put into the component to cause a change Albedo - reflectivity of incoming short wave radiation Atmosphere Geosphere - land Cryosphere -ice Hydrosphere -ocean Biosphere - Vegetation - Anthrosphere
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Atmosphere Response time Strong diurnal cycle Fastest response to perturbation- days to months Mixes globally in months to years Heat Capacity Low heat capacity Easily heated and set into motion Strong vertical and horizontal gradients
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Atmosphere Albedo Clouds reflect 50-55% Clear skies reflect ~5% Coupled to other systems through energy and chemical exchanges Evaporation/precipitation Wind stress Trace gas exchange
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