6 Atmosphere - Atmosphere Most insolation into the tropics Redistributed by the ocean and atmosphere Range of temporal and spatial scales Eddies

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Atmosphere Most insolation into the tropics Redistributed by the ocean and atmosphere Range of temporal and spatial scales Eddies, local winds to global circulation
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Atmosphere Atmosphere- relevant to oceans and climate Redistributes heat (1/2 to 2/3) Sets up surface ocean circulation
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Atmosphere Plan Composition Pressure Temperature distribution Circulation
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Atmospheric Composition 78% N 2 (relatively inert) 21% O 2 (reactive) <1 % Ar (inert) 0.03% CO 2 H 2 O doubles for every 10°C increase in temperature Antarctic = 0.00001% Tropics = 4%
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Atmospheric Pressure Molecules making up gases have a weight Exerts a pressure on the surface of the Earth = atmospheric pressure - 1 liter of air > 10 22 molecules - Torricelli (17 th century)
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From Nese and Grench- The World of Weather
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Atmospheric Pressure Measured in force per unit area (psi) At sea level normal air pressure supports 29.92 inches of mercury Also measured in millibars (1013.25 mb)
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Atmospheric Pressure Density decreases by a factor of 10 for every 16 km of altitude (gravity) Atmospheric pressure at any altitude is related to the weight of the over lying air Exponential increase in pressure toward ground Vertical pressure gradients do not make the wind blow (balanced by gravity) 5 km 500 mb 0 km 1013 mb SL Altitude Decreasing
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Atmospheric Pressure Weather maps plot isobars = lines of equal pressure (mb) See KKC 4-19 January July Horizontal pressure gradients
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Atmospheric Pressure Horizontal Pressure Gradient Often related to temperature variations Small pressure differences detected horizontally Cooler air Hotter air 500 mb 500 mb
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Atmospheric Pressure Air wants to flow down pressure gradients from higher to lower pressure Steeper gradient = faster flow Cooler air Hotter air Horizontal Pressure gradient 500 mb 500 mb 300 mb
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Horizontal Pressure Gradient L H 1018 mb 1016 mb 1014 mb H L 1018 mb 1016 mb 1014 mb Need to add coriolis High and low pressure systems
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Atmospheric Layers Atmosphere has a structure Largely based on temperature Also composition and density
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Atmospheric Layers Thermosphere Mesopause Mesosphere Stratopause See KKC 3-9
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Atmospheric Layers Troposphere- only layer we’re really concerned with Bottom layer 0-~10 km – polar regions 0-~15 km – equatorial regions Heated from below by the Earth Warmest at bottom, cooler toward top Gradient ~6.5° /km Inherently unstable (hot air rises) Zone of thermal convection (“weather”)
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Atmospheric Layers Stratosphere (~12 – 50 km) Temperature increases with altitude Thermally stratified (stable) Much energy from exothermic ozone reactions Hottest at top because more UV available Most of earth’s ozone Dry – no condensation (except polar stratospheric clouds) (0.02 g H 2 O v /kg air vs. 40 g H 2 O v /kg air)
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This note was uploaded on 07/08/2011 for the course GLY 3074 taught by Professor Ellenmartin during the Spring '09 term at University of Florida.

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6 Atmosphere - Atmosphere Most insolation into the tropics Redistributed by the ocean and atmosphere Range of temporal and spatial scales Eddies

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