11. Carbon Cycle - Global Carbon Cycle Importance of carbon...

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Global Carbon Cycle Importance of carbon Basis of biosphere Greenhouse gas Regulates acidity of the ocean Tied to O 2 cycle Anthropogenically altered http://www.dbcca.com/dbcca/EN/
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Forms of Carbon Organic Carbon Reduced forms of carbon Bonded to C, H, or N Part of compounds formed by living organisms (biomass) Inorganic Carbon Oxidized forms of carbon (CO 2 , CaCO 3 )
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Global Carbon Cycle Includes: Terrestrial and marine Organic and inorganic In KKC (Ch. 8) Short term organic (biosphere) Long term organic (ocean and geosphere) Inorganic Oceans- intermediate Geosphere (rock cycle)- long term
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Approach for class Short term cycle (Biosphere-Surface Ocean) Interactions with atmosphere/surface ocean Residence times days to years Intermediate term cycle (Deep Ocean) Interactions with the deep ocean Residence times 100-1000 yrs Long term cycle (Geosphere) Interactions with the geosphere Residence times millions (100’s of millions) yrs Global Carbon Cycle
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Total carbon reservoir on Earth = 10 23 g Units gigatons of carbon gigaton = 1 billion metric tons metric ton = 1000 kg 1 billion x 1000 kg = 10 12 kg = 10 15 gC gigaton of C = 10 15 gC = gTC Carbon - units
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Carbon- units Atmosphere currently has ~832 gTC • Also parts per million by volume of CO 2 in the atmosphere (ppmV) ~0.03% by volume currently 391 ppmV
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Reservoirs of carbon? Global Carbon Cycle
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Reservoirs (largest to smallest) Sediments and rocks- Geosphere Ocean- Hydrosphere Soil Atmosphere Biosphere (~ atmosphere) Global Carbon Cycle
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Carbon Reservoirs Ruddiman Atmosphere now ~832
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Carbon Reservoirs KKC 8-3 Rocks/Sed Ocean HCO 3 - 832 GtC CO 3 -2 Today Carbon occurs in multiple reservoirs and in multiple forms in the ocean CO 2(aq)
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KKC 8-1 How carbon moves through the earth/climate system
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Global Carbon Cycle (1994) KKC 15-6 Chapter 8 -C cycle Chapter 15-16 - global warming
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IPCC Carbon Cycle Houghton et al, 1990 Fossil fuels + deforest. Now >8 35 4000- 6000 40,000,000 832Gt ~6
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Global Carbon Cycle NASA- earthobservatory (~1990) +3/yr +0.5/yr +1.5/yr Reforestation Deforestation 40,000,000 832
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CO 2 by Country Per capita 2002
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Global Carbon Cycle Steady State Inputs = outputs Size of reservoir doesn’t change with time Natural Cycle ~ steady state (with a seasonal cycle) - implies input and output rates are linked to the reservoir size Currently not in steady state due to anthropogenic inputs
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Residence Time Residence Time (yr) = average amount of time a substance stays in a given reservoir at steady state = amount in reservoir (g) (g)/(g/yr) = yr Residence time (steady state) similar to the response time for system not in steady input or output rate (g/yr)
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Typical residence times for carbon Atmosphere (bio) 832/213= 3.9yrs Plants 610/120 = 5 yrs Surface Ocean 1020/230 = 4.4 yrs Soil 1580/60 = 26 yrs
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11. Carbon Cycle - Global Carbon Cycle Importance of carbon...

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