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Evolutionary Biology Notes

Evolutionary Biology Notes - Chaper 32 Animals Animals...

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Chaper 32: Animals Animals – monophyletic group of eukaryotes that can be recognized by three traits: They are multicellular, ingest their food, and they move under their own power at some point of their life. o They are a particularly species-rich and morphologically diverse lineage of multicellular organisms. o Largest and most abundant predators, herbivores, and detrivores in virtually every ecosystem. o Eat nearly every organism on the tree of life. o Major groups are recognized through their basic body plan, number of tissues observed in embryo, symmetry, presence of body cavity, and the way in which early events in embryonic development. o Two major phylogenetic groups: Protosomes (Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa) and Deuterostomes . o Differences in feeding and moving as well as sexual or asexual reproduction. o Heterotrophs - optain carbon compunds from other organisms. o 10- 50 million species of animals. o Only lineage on the tree of life with species that have muscle tissue and nervous tissue. o No alternation of generations. Diploid most of adult stage and haploid during sexual reproduction. o Limbs and mouth made moving and eating possible. Body Plan – is an animal’s architecture, its major structural and functional design. 1. Number of tissues in embryo. o Tissues - similar cells in tightly integrated structures and functional units. o Sponges lack tissues but have epithelium - a layer of tightly joined cells that cover the surface. o Number of tissue layers that exist in an embryo are important: Diploblasts (two buds)- two type of tissue layers. Germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm. Ex: Cnidarians and Ctenophorans: o Cnidarians- include jellyfish, corals, anemones, sea pens, and hydra o Ctenophorans- comb jellies Tripoblasts (three buds)- three type of tissue layers. Germ layers: ectoderm – skin and nervous system, endoderm- lining of digestive tract, mesoderm- circulatory system and bone and most organs. Other animals including humans, leeches.
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