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immunology 4.14.10 - Immunization Protection of susceptible...

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Immunization Protection of susceptible people from communicable disease by administration of a living modified agent, a suspension of killed organisms, or inactivated toxins Active immunization o Specific active immunity may be acquired naturally through exposure to infectious agents, or it may be induced by means of immunization with an inactivated or (killed) attenuated live organisms. o Exposes the body to a harmless form of the antigen and it imprints immunologic memory and then stimulated the body’s defense mechanism against any subsequent exposures. Effective vaccines features o Safety : must not result in infection in the patient o Protective: must protect against illnesses when exposed to live pathogens o Provide prolonged protection o Induce neutralizing antibodies that play a key role in defending against pathogens o Acceptable side effect profiles: Achy, fever o Low cost of production o Ease of storage o Ease of administration Vaccine Types o Attenuated Live viral or bacterial Diminished pathogenecity Both cell mediated and humoral immunity
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Longer lasting antibody production (advantage) Ability to revert to pathogenic form (disadvantage) o Killed Vaccines (Toxoids) No replicating /non infectious (advantage) Need multiple booster shots (disadvantage) o Recombinant DNA look up Vaccine Development Look up o Passage in cell culture (tissue adaptation) MMR is an example o Species adaptation Small Pox is an example o Temperature selected mutant Influenza
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