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1105 Chapter 4 Notes[1]

1105 Chapter 4 Notes[1] - 1105 Chapter 4 Notes Science is a...

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1105 Chapter 4 Notes Science : is a process used to solve problems Scientific Method : is a way of gaining information (facts) about the world by forming possible solutions to questions, followed by rigorous testing to determine if the proposed solutions are valid. Several Fundamental Assumptions: 1. observation 2. causes to be identified Explanation 3. general rules to explain what happens in nature 4. An event can occurs repeatedly has the same cause each time 5. What one person perceives can be perceived by others 6. Same fundamental rules of nature apply regardless of where and when they occur For Example: All have observed lightning associated with thunderstorms. We know from scientific observations and experiments that lightning is caused by a difference in electrical charge, that the behavior of lightning follows the general rules, all lightning has been measured has the same cause wherever and whenever it occurred. Cause-And-Effect Relationships : Many events are correlated. But not all correlations show cause-and-effect. When an event occurs as a direct result of a previous event, a cause-and-effect relationship exists. For example, lightning and thunder are correlated and have a cause-and-effect relationship. Lightning causes thunder. Elements of the Scientific Method: 1. observation 2. Asking questions 3. formulation or construction of hypothesis 4. Test hypothesis 5. openness to the new information and ideas 6. Communication 1. OBSERVATION: Observation can be done when we use our senses (smell , sight, hearing, taste, touch ) or an extension of our senses ( microscope, tape recorder, X-ray machine, thermometer) to record an event. Scientists refer the observation here as careful, thoughtful recognition of the event; not just casual notice. Scientists train themselves to improve their observational skills, since careful observation is important in all parts of the scientific method.
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2. QUESTIONING: Observation often lead one to ask questions about the observations. Why did this event happen? Will it happen again in the same circumstances? 3. CONSTRUCTION THE HYPOTHESIS: A hypothesis is a statement that provides a possible answer to a question or an explanation for an observation that can be tested. A good hypothesis must be logical, and also testable. If a hypothesis is not testable, it is merely speculation. 4. TESTING HYPOTHESIS: A common method of testing a hypothesis involves devising an experiment. The best experimental devise will have two groups. One is controlled and another experimental both differs in only one way . For e xample: Tumors of the skin and liver occur in the fish that live in certain rivers.
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1105 Chapter 4 Notes[1] - 1105 Chapter 4 Notes Science is a...

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