Gene 3200

Gene 3200 - Stages of mitosis: prophase In animal cells...

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Stages of mitosis: prophase Stages of mitosis: prophase GENE3200 - Chapter 4 - Bedell - 6/17/11 Chromosomes begin to condense and have sister chromatids attached at the centromere Centrosomes migrate to opposite ends of the nucleus New microtubules grow from centrosomal organizing centers In animal cells Figure 4.8a DNA Microtubules Centriole Nuclear envelope Sister chromatids Chromosome Centrosome Microtubules 1
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Stages of mitosis: prometaphase Stages of mitosis: prometaphase GENE3200 - Chapter 4 - Bedell - 6/17/11 Figure 4.8b Nuclear envelope breaks down Microtubules from centrosomes invade the nucleus and connect to kinetochores in centromere of each chromatid Sister chromatids attach to microtubules from opposite poles Mitotic spindle forms from three kinds of microtubules ( astral , kinetochore , and polar ) 2 Polar microtubules Kinetochore microtubules Kinetochore Astral microtubules DNA Microtubules
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Stages of mitosis: metaphase Stages of mitosis: metaphase Chromosomes align on the metaphase plate with sister chromatids facing opposite poles The kinetochores for each pair of sister chromatids are attached to microtubules from opposite poles of the spindle Forces pushing and pulling chromosomes to or from each pole are in balanced equilibrium GENE3200 - Chapter 4 - Bedell - 6/17/11 3 DNA Microtubules Metaphase plate Figure 4.8c
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Stages of mitosis: anaphase Stages of mitosis: anaphase Centromeres of all chromosomes divide simultaneously Kinetochore microtubules shorten and pull separated sister chromatids to opposite poles (characteristic V shape) GENE3200 - Chapter 4 - Bedell - 6/17/11 4 DNA Microtubules Separating sister chromatids Figure 4.8d
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Stages of mitosis: telophase Stages of mitosis: telophase Rewind of prophase Nuclear envelope forms around each group of chromatids Nucleoli re-form Spindle fibers disperse Chromosomes decondense GENE3200 - Chapter 4 - Bedell - 6/17/11 5 Nucleoli reappear Chromatin Figure 4.8e DNA Microtubules Re-forming nuclear envelope
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Cytokinesis is the final stage of cell division Cytokinesis is the final stage of cell division Begins during anaphase but not completed until after telophase Parent cells split into two daughter cells with identical nuclei Mechanism differs between plant and animal cells (see Fig 4.9) ytokinesis does not always occur after mitosis (see Fig 4.10) GENE3200 - Chapter 4 - Bedell - 6/17/11 DNA Microtubules 6 Figure 4.8f Figure 4.8f
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Checkpoints help regulate the cell cycle 7 GENE3200 - Chapter 4 - Bedell - 6/17/11 Fig. 4.11 Chromosome and centrosome duplication Mitosis Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase and cytokinesis Interphase Ongoing protein synthesis and cell growth Is the cell of sufficient size?
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Gene 3200 - Stages of mitosis: prophase In animal cells...

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