Unit I Ch3 Bio Molecules - Chapter 3 Biological Molecules...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 Biological Molecules Chapter 3 1 Molecules Organic: C + H C backbone Functional Groups Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids Inorganic: the rest: CO2, H2O, NaCl Chapter 3 2 Functional Groups, I Hydrogen Polar / Nonpolar H Hydroxyl Polar OH Chapter 3 3 Functional Groups, II Carboxyl (Carboxylic acid) Polar COOH Amine or Amino Polar NH2 Chapter 3 4 Functional Groups, III Phosphate Polar H2PO4 Methyl Nonpolar CH3 Chapter 3 5 Joining Organic Molecules Monomer 1 part Monosaccharide Amino Acid Nucleotide Polymer many parts Carbohydrate Protein Nucleic Acid Chapter 3 6 H2O removed, polymer formed H2O added, polymer digested 7 Proteins Enzyme: protein catalyst Hormone Structure: elastin for skin; keratin (hair, horns, claws); spider & moth cocoon silk Energy: casein in milk, albumin in egg Transport: hemoglobin to carry oxygen in blood Cell Movement: actin & myosin = contractile proteins in muscle Antibodies: fight disease & infection Membrane proteins: Transport, Receptor, Recognition Poisons: rattlesnake venom Hair Spiderweb Horn Prions: "mad cow disease"Chapter 3 8 Amino acid (monomer) Protein (polymer) 20 different "R" Groups = 20 diff amino acids Amine Group Carboxylic Acid Group R "Alpha" Carbon The "R" Group Placeholder Chapter 3 9 Amino Acids: Glutamic Acid Structure Amine Group "Alpha" Carbon Carboxylic Acid Group Glutamic Acid "R" Group Chapter 3 10 Amino Acids: Arginine Structure Amine Group "Alpha" Carbon Carboxylic Acid Group Arginine "R" Group Chapter 3 11 Amino Acids: Phenylalanine Structure Amine Group "Alpha" Carbon Carboxylic Acid Group Phenylalanine "R" Group Chapter 3 12 Amino Acids: Leucine Structure Amine Group Carboxylic Acid Group Leucine "R" Group Chapter 3 13 Peptide Bond Formation Phenylalanine Leucine By Dehydration Synthesis between COOH & NH2 Chapter 3 14 PhenylalanineLeucine Dipeptide The Peptide Bond Water Chapter 3 15 Chapter 3 16 Hemoglobin Protein Structure Denature: lose 3D structure & function Primary (Sequence) Tertiary (Bending) Quaternary (Layering) Secondary (Coiling) Chapter 3 17 3D Protein structures Silk 18 | S S | | S | S | S | S --S--S-- S | | --S--S-- a. a. Cysteine: can make disulfide bonds/bridges Hair 19 S | S | S S | --S--S-- | S S | | | S | --S--S-- S | | S | | | | | --S--S-- | S | | Straight Hair S Naturally Curly Hair S | | | Permanent Wave | S S S S | | | | S | | S S | Carbohydrates 1C:2H:1O or (CH2O)n Hydrophilic, taste sweet Primary Energy Source for animals Monosaccharides Glucose + Fructose 6 C = Hexose Disaccharides Sucrose Lactose 5 C = Pentose Short term Energy Glucose + Galactose Glucose + Glucose Maltose Polysaccharides Long Term Energy Glycogen: stored in liver & muscles of animals Starch: roots & seeds of plants Structural Support Cellulose: makes cells wall of every plant cell Chitin: fungal wall, exoskeletons Lubricating fluids in corneas of eyes and skeletal joints Also part of mucus, some hormones, cell I.D. proteins, nucleic acids Dehydration Synthesis Glucose OH group from 1,4 C's of glucose used for dehydration synthesis Potato Starch long term energy storage Sucralose (in Splenda) 600x sweeter than sucrose in > 4500 foods & beverages 22 Chapter 3 23 CH2OH O O OH CH2OH O O OH Plant Structural Support: Cellulose CH2OH O O OH CH2OH O O OH O O OH CH2OH O O OH CH2OH O O OH24 HO HO O O HO CH2OH O O Chapter 3 CH2OH HO CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH O O OH CH2OH OH CH2OH O O O O HO O O HO CH2OH O O CH2OH O O Structural Support for: Insect, crab, lobster exoskeleton Fungal cell wall Chitin Like cellulose, but with nitrogen Strong, very resistant to digestion Chapter 3 25 Chapter 3 26 Lipids Hetergeneous group large regions of C & H nonpolar & hydrophobic FATTY ACID TYPES Triglycerides Fats, Oils long term energy storage 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids Phospholipids Bilayer makes membrane 1 glycerol + 2 fatty acids + polar head group Waxes Plant/animal water proof covering 27 Triglyceride formation (fats/oils) 1 Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids Chapter 3 28 Triglyceride formation (fats/oils) Triglyceride H H C OH OH C O HC H HC H HC H H H CH OH OH C O HC H HC H HC H H H HC O C O HC H C O HC H HC H HC H HC H H HC H H HOH H C O C O HC H C O HC H HC H HC H HC H H HC H H HOH H CH O C O HC H C O HC H HC H HC H HC H H HC H H HOH 29 Glycerol Remove These Waters Add 3 Fatty Acids HC OH OH C O HC H HC H HC H H Chapter 3 3 Waters Fatty Acid determines properties of lipid Fats Oils Saturated w/H 0nly CC Solid From animals: beef, bacon, butter From seeds of plants: corn, peanut, canola oil Unsaturated one or more Liquid C=C C=C CC Partially hydrogenated oil Trans Unnatural and harmful! Chemical Potential Energy Fats, Oils Carbohydrates & Proteins 9.3 cal/gram 4.1 cal/gram Chapter 3 31 Phospholipids: bulk of membranes (hydrophilic) (hydrophobic) polar head glycerol backbone 2 x fatty acid tails 32 phospholipid extracellular fluid (watery environment) hydrophilic heads hydrophobic tails bilayer hydrophilic heads Phospholipid bilayer makes up membranes Chapter 3 cytoplasm (watery environment) 33 Chapter 3 34 Lipids STEROID TYPES complex ring types Testosterone Estradiol Sex Steroids Androgens Estrogens Progestagens Anabolic Steroids Increase muscle & bone synthesis Cholesterol Cholesterol Natural substance 35 Lipoproteins carry cholesterol and triglycerides in blood LDL Bad kind Low density lipoprotein less protein, more lipid HDL Good kind High density lipoprotein more protein, less lipid clogs arteries removes LDL (plaque) from bloodstream 36 Chapter 3 37 Nucleic Acids Nucleotides = Monomer = Phospate + Sugar + Base ATP, NADH, NADPH, FADH2: Energycarriers cAMP: Intracellular chemical messenger Coenzymes: nucleotide + vitamin = promote & guide chemical reactions DNA: Genes / Chromosomes = storage of hereditary info RNA: Manages protein synthesis Chapter 3 38 Nucleic Acids = Polymer DNA Nucleotide Structure (Adenine) DNA = Deoxyribonucleic Acid Deoxyribose Sugar RNA = Ribonucleic Acid Ribose Sugar (Deoxyribose) Chapter 3 39 DNA double helix Adenosine Monophosphate Cyclic AMP NH2 Used for intracellular communication O N C C N HC CH C N CH2 O N Ribose H H H H O Chapter 3 O P OH OH 41 Adenosine Triphosphate ATP Used for energy transfer Chapter 3 42 From Vitamin B5 + Ribonucleotide Coenzymes help enzymes From Vitamin B3 = Niacin NADH carries 2 e Chapter 3 45 ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/23/2011 for the course BIO 111 taught by Professor Osikanlu during the Summer '09 term at Moraine Valley Community College.

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