Scaling &amp; Scale Analysis

Scaling &amp; Scale Analysis - New Topic Scaling Issues...

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New Topic: Scaling New Topic: Scaling Issues: 1. The Process of Writing Questions 2. Types of Scales 3. Sticky Issues 4. Things to Avoid It’s easy to write bad questions

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Translates the research objectives into specific questions Standardizes those questions and the response categories Fosters cooperation and motivation Serves as permanent records of the research Can speed up the process of data analysis Can serve as the basis for reliability and validity measures Functions of a Questionnaire Functions of a Questionnaire
The Questionnaire Development Process

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Open-ended Questionnaires exploratory research develop questionnaire items time consuming coding post-coding interviewer bias "articulate" bias Scale Types Scale Types
Comparative Rating Scales Comparative Rating Scales - involves a direct comparison to a reference point (brand, ranking) ordinal data 3 Types: 1. Rank-ordered 2. Constant sum 3. Paired comparison Scale Types Scale Types

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a. Rank Order Scaling - respondents order a group of objects. (ex) 1 = most preferred 4= least preferred Brand A: (2 × 1) + (4 × 2) + (2 × 3) + (2 × 4) = 24 Brand B: (6 × 1) + (3 × 2) + (1 × 3) + (0 × 4) = 15 : B is the preferred brand Comparative Rating Scales Comparative Rating Scales
b. Constant Sum Scales - respondents allocate points or chips among alternatives. typically 100 points use "chips" for mall intercept sometimes treated as interval c. Paired Comparison - select between two objects (brands). Comparative Rating Scales Comparative Rating Scales

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There's no comparison; each object is rated one at a time 2 Types: 1. Continuous 2. Itemized Noncomparative Rating Scales Noncomparative Rating Scales
1. Continuous - respondent "marks" their perception on a line. Probably the Worst Probably the Best treated as interval scoring can be problematic Noncomparative Rating Scales Noncomparative Rating Scales

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2. Itemized - categories are provided. 3 Types of Itemized Scales 3 Types of Itemized Scales a. a. Likert - Likert - respondents indicate degree of agreement with a series of statements. e.g., 1= Strongly Disagree; 7= Strongly Agree Scoring: sum the responses reverse scores (1 = 5; 5 = 1) Noncomparative Rating Scales Noncomparative Rating Scales
b. Semantic Differential - seven-point bipolar adjective. (e.g.)

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This note was uploaded on 06/23/2011 for the course MKTG 352 taught by Professor ? during the Summer '10 term at South Carolina.

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Scaling &amp; Scale Analysis - New Topic Scaling Issues...

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