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Psych Take Home Test 4

Psych Take Home Test 4 - 1 What is the subject matter of...

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1. What is the subject matter of cognition? (What kinds of things do cognitive psychologists study?) Cognition is everything that goes on in your head that no one else can see. It includes process and thoughts. Santrock defines cognition as “the way in which information is processed and manipulated in remembering, thinking, and knowing” (Santrock 351). In class we included deciding, problem solving, thinking, learning, knowing and creativity under this category. Cognitive psychologists make the analogy between the human brain and a computer. Santrock defines cognitive psychology as “the label for the approaches that sought to explain observable behavior by investigating mental processes and structures that cannot be directly observed” (351).
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2. What do we mean by intelligence? How do you test to see if an intelligence test is reliable? Valid? Santrock defines intelligence as “problem-solving skills and the ability to adapt to and learn from life's everyday experiences” (389). In class we stated that it is not just the ability to learn, but also includes reasoning and understanding. Over the years different psychologists have given many different types and categories of intelligence. Thurston gave 7, Guilford gave 180, Gardner gave 2; fluid and crystal. Sternberg gave us 3 kinds of intelligence; being good at reasoning, knowing a lot, and knowing how to get things done. However, there is no known consensus on intelligence or how to measure it. To test reliability of the tests one has to test consistency. For example, inter-observer reliability is when different scorers of a test produce the same result. This proves that the test is reliable. Validity is harder to obtain. In Binet's tests he gave the children the test and then asked the children's teachers to rank the students by “intelligence.” This is an attempt to validate his test. Content validity relates to
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