bio lecture notes 4

bio lecture notes 4 - Animal Behavior 15:08 Is a very very...

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Animal Behavior 15:08 Is a very very very old field The modern scientific study of animal behavior extends beyond simply observing  behavor to: How behavior is controlled How it develops and evolves How behavior contributes to an individual’s survival How it contributes to an individual’s reproductive success Where does behavior come from? Proximate (“how”) questions: how a behavior occurs, what’s the mechanism  behind this? How does a bee find it’s way back to the hive? How does a fish species recognize mates How does day length influence breeding by birds? Can generate hypotheses from these ^ Breeding is triggered by the effect of increased daylength on hormone  production and response to hormones Ultimate (“why”) questions Evolutionary significance of the behavior Why did natural selection favor this one o Why is this relationship evolutionarily important to the reproductive  success of these birds? Warmer, more food available for growing offspring Konrad Lorenz, Nikolaas Tinbergen, Kar von Frisch: Fathers of Animal Behavior
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Inbergen’s Four Questions (that should be asked by any animal behaviorist) What is the mechanistic basis of the behavior? (chem., anatomical, physical) How does development of the animal influence the behavior? What is the evolutionary history of the behavior? (where did this behavior  arise?) How does the behavior contribute to the survival and reproduction? o 2 proximates and two ultimate’s o most animal behaviors are somewhere in the middle between innate and  environmental What’s next? some behaviors under genetic control (innate) some behaviors under genetic and environmental control (innate and learned) genetic and social influence on some other behaviors environmental influence on behaviors such as: o learning spatial learning (how get around environment) associative learning (classical and operant conditioning) animal communication (chemical and acoustic) cognition (self awareness in animals) how behavior can evolve by natural selection (behavior can be a character,  ex. Producing a lot of offspring) Genetically controlled behaviors (innate behavior) Fixed action pattern: instinctive behavior sequence triggered by a sign  stimulus that is indivisible and runs to completion
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o Something in environment triggers something in brain of organism,  triggers a behavior in animal, that behavior runs to completion even if take  away original stimulus o Ex. Greylag goose: take away egg from female sitting on nest (stimulus),  triggers something in brain to pull egg back, will do this even if take egg 
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This note was uploaded on 06/23/2011 for the course BIO 150 taught by Professor Rayner during the Fall '10 term at Wofford.

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bio lecture notes 4 - Animal Behavior 15:08 Is a very very...

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