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Bio Lecture Notes

Bio Lecture Notes - How does biology fit into scientific...

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How does biology fit into scientific study? 18:39 Characteristics of what is Living 1. Cellular organisms 2. Organisms show ordered complexity 3. Organisms respond to stimuli a. Ex. Plants grow towards light (positive phototaxis) 4. Organisms grow a. Individual getting larger or cell growth 5. Organisms posses a means for inheritance a. (reproduce) DNA b. Asexual or sexual 6. Organisms take in energy a. Energy to work, grow or reproduce i. Thru autotrophic or heterotrophic or combo 7. Organisms maintain a relatively constant internal environment compared to their  external environment a. Aka homeostasis i. Ex. Sharks live in both salt and fresh water and move between these two  environments 1. Lose water in saltier water, gain water in fresher water a. Hold water inside themselves 8. Populations of organisms show adaptation over generations Living systems show hierarchchical organization
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Atoms together are molecules, molecules together are macromolecules,  macromolecules together are a cell, to tissue, to organs, to organ systems,  to the individual organism, to populations, to species, to community, to  ecosystem, to the biosphere Living systems also show emergent properties in each subsequent level o Ex. Look at one individual part of a watch, could never predict what a put  together clock would look like and fuction o Ex look at a fish swimming, the property of a school of fish swimming only  emerges when they are swimming together, couldn’t predict it by looking at  the swimming of one individual fish o See at all different levels Much of biology (and science) describes stuff o Not just doing experiments and taking data Ex. The humane genome project Bio and science both use deductive and inductive reasoning o Inductive reasoning flows from the specific to the general See women in car accidents so make general statement that all  women are bad drivers o Deductive flows from the general to the specific Have it in head from previous experience that all women drivers are  bad, go into school see a car accident, must be a woman o Use these in all kinds of science Biology make and test hypotheses o A hypothesis is a proposition that might be true o The process of constructing and testing hypotheses is iterative If testing proves hypothesis incorrect, just readjust it until find proper  explanation How do scientists and biologists study very complex ideas? Through reductionism: look at one very specific part of the problem, see how 
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