Socch9 - Chapter 9 Sex & Gender Sex we refer to the...

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Chapter 9 – Sex & Gender
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Sex- we refer to the biology of  maleness and femaleness chromosomal, chemical, anatomical Gender –  refers to meanings given by societies masculinity and femininity Biological sex varies little.   Males have a Y chromosome… but gender varies  enormously….in four  crucial ways
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gender varies: cultural to culture  – What it means to be  a man or woman varies from culture to  culture.  In some, women are passive and  dependent, in others, decisive and  competent over time  – different from what it meant  200 years ago. Men wore their hair in long  ringlets within a society  – may be dependent on race, religion, region, age, sexuality and class. (rich Asian American vs. poor white Catholic) over the life course  -  what it means to 
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gender Identity –  refers to our understanding of ourselves as male or female. Sociologists understand that other identities like class/race affect gender identity. intersectionality   -  identities as plural: masculinities/femininities. Making the terms plural indicates how different groups of men/ women might have different identities “The difference  among  men and  among  women are often greater than the  differences  between  men and women.”
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gender inequality – two dimensions.   Domination of men over women and  domination of some men over other men  and some women over other women. Patriarchy – the rule of the fathers Most societies grant more power and resources to some men and some women 1963 – Goffman described Masculinity in the US: Young, married, white, urban, Northern, heterosexual, Protestant Father, college education, fully Employed, good complexion, Recent record in sports
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Evolutionary Imperatives chief goal of living creatures is to reproduce. Males and females developed different reproductive strategies to ensure this. Called evolutionary imperative men as - naturally  promiscuous – goal is to inseminate as many females as possible. Evolutionary biologists say men are reluctant to commit females as – considered naturally monogamous. Must invest significant energy to ensure offspring is born and survives. seek commitment so male can help protect offspring.
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Brain and Hormone Research scientists disagree about differences in male/female brain/sex hormones. Once thought because male brain was bigger, they were smarter. Studies of brain do suggest some differences Right hemisphere – visual/spatial ability Left hemisphere – language/reading Males are thought to be more right brained. Separation between two sides more pronounced
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Socch9 - Chapter 9 Sex & Gender Sex we refer to the...

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