2 DNA - DNA: Molecules of Heredity Structure of DNA Made of...

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DNA: Molecules of Heredity
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Made of building blocks called NUCLEOTIDES Each nucleotide is composed of 3 parts: 1.Sugar 2.Phosphate 3.Nitrogen Base Structure of DNA
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4 different nucleotides, that differ in their nitrogen bases 2 purines Adenine (A) Guanine (G) 2 pyrimidines Thymine (T) Cytosine (C)
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phosphate group sugar (ribose) adenine (A) base with a double-ring structure thymine (T) base with a single-ring structure cytosine (C) base with a single-ring structure guanine (G) base with a double-ring structure Pyrimidines Purines
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Why did scientists at first think that DNA would be a poor candidate for the hereditary material? 1 2 3 4 5 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 1. Griffith's experiments suggested protein was the hereditary material. 2. Studies showed that viruses lacking DNA passed genetic traits to the next generation. 3. DNA was made of only four kinds of subunits. 4. The work of Franklin and Wilkins showed that DNA could not be hereditary material. 5. None of the above is correct.
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Hydrogen bonding between base pairs holds together the two chains of helix (A)= (T) (G) Ξ (C) Chargaff’s rules A = T G = C Base-pairing rules for DNA
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Which of the following are INCORRECTLY matched? 1 2 3 4 25% 25% 25% 25% 1. Complementary base pairs: adenine and cytosine 2. Bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine 3. Nucleotide: phosphate and sugar and base 4. Eukaryotic chromosome: DNA and protein
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Because each base pairs with a complementary base, in every DNA molecule the amount of 1 2 3 4 5 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 1. cytosine equals that of guanine. 2. cytosine equals that of thymine. 3. cytosine equals that of adenine. 4. each nucleotide is unrelated to all others. 5. each nucleotide is equal to all others.
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How many different three base sequences can be assembled using the four nucleotides found in DNA? 1 2 3 4 5 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 1. 1 2. 3 3. 9 4. 64 5. more than 64
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Double Helix FIRST DESCRIBED BY 3 SCIENTISTS: James Watson Francis Crick Rosalind Franklin
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Rosalind Franklin Used a X-Ray Crystalography to show: Shape = double helix Sides = Sugar & Phosphate Size = diameter of 2 nanometers & there is one full turn of the DNA helix occurs every 3.4 nanometers.
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2 nm diameter overall 0.34 nm between each pair of bases 3.4 nm length of each full twist of helix
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Two chains are antiparallel (running in opposite directions) 5’ – 3’ 3’ – 5’
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one base pair or or Base-pairing in DNA
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The X-ray diffraction pattern for DNA indicated that DNA had all of the following features EXCEPT: 1 2 3 4 5 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 1. A DNA molecule is helical. 2. A DNA molecule has a diameter of 2 nanometers.
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2 DNA - DNA: Molecules of Heredity Structure of DNA Made of...

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