protists - Protists Chapter 25 Domain Eukarya Evidence...

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Protists Chapter 25
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Domain Eukarya Evidence suggests Archaea are more similar to Eukarya than to Eubacteria
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Six Kingdoms
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Evolution of the Eukaryotes The earliest eukaryotes appeared about 1.5 billion years ago Zooflagellates (animal-like protists w/ flagella) such as Giardia may be more closely related to the prokaryotes than any other protist group. Protists with shells left a relatively abundant fossil record
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The nuclear envelope developed from an invagination of the plasma membrane. The endoplasmic reticulum and all the other intracellular membranes come from the nuclear envelope. This figure also shows the evolution of the mitochondria from ingested aerobic bacteria. Aerobic bacterium
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Endosymbiotic Theory of organelle evolution Describes the origin of chloroplasts from photosynthetic prokaryotes and mitochondria from aerobic prokaryotes This theory was first proposed by Lynn Margulis in the 1960s Primary endosymbiosis Incorporation of an aerobic bacterium results in the mitochondion Incorporation of a cyanobacterium resulted in chloroplasts in red and green algae and plants
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Endosymbiotic Theory
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Endosymbiotic Theory Secondary endosymbiosis Incorporation of a eukaryotic cell with its own mitochondria and chloroplast produced the triple membranes around the chloroplasts of englenoids, and dinoflagellates, and the quadruple membranes of diatoms, golden algae, and the brown algae. May have occurred frequently.
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Cyanobacterium (ancestor of chloroplast) Mitochondrion Chloroplast with three membranes Bacterial DNA Eukaryotic cell with mitochondria and chloroplasts (red alga) Chloroplast with two membranes Chloroplast DNA Eukaryotic cell with mitochondria Nucleus Eukaryotic cell with mitochondria Eukaryotic cell with mitochondria and chloroplasts (dinoflagellate?) Secondary endosymbiosis Primary endosymbiosis Secondary endosymbiosis Primary endosymbiosis
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Endosymbiotic Theory Data that support the theory Presence of bacterial type circular DNA in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Ribosomes are bacterial type 70S Mitochondria and chloroplasts can multiply by binary fission as do bacteria. Location of electron transport chain Plasma membrane of bacteria cell Plasma membrane surrounding the thyllakoids inside the chloroplasts Inner plasma membrane of the mitochondria
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Cyanophora paradoxa   - has no  chloroplasts; contains an  endosymbiotic cyanobacterium.  Pelomyxa  has no  mitochondria; this amoeba  depends on aerobic  bacterial symbionts to carry  out respiration More support for the theory: Living  organisms that contain endosymbiotic  bacteria that carry out vital functions in  the cell.
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Endosymbiotic Theory Apicomplexans are parasites and nonphotosynthetic but have a chloroplast relic from secondary endosymbiotic events. Since the apicomplexan
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protists - Protists Chapter 25 Domain Eukarya Evidence...

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