primate_evolution

primate_evolution - The Evolution of Primates Chapter 22...

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The Evolution of Primates Chapter 22
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Who are the Primates? Mammals Evolved from therapsids (mammal-like reptiles) Therapsids, reptiles with hair instead of scales (who were also possibly warm-blooded), dominated the Earth before dinosaurs did approximately 250 mya. This is a recon- struction of the therapsid Thrinaxodon , a 12-inch-long animal adapted for a generalized carnivorous diet.
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Learning Objective 1 What structural adaptations do primates have for life in treetops?
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Primate Characteristics 1. Five grasping digits Including opposable thumb or toe
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Primate Characteristics 1. Long, slender limbs Move freely at hips and shoulders 1. Eyes located in front of head Stereoscopic vision
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Primate Characteristics 1. Bigger Brain - Enhanced cognitive processing capacity
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Theories on early primate evolution Characteristics are adaptations for 1. Arboreal life? Problem : Other tree-living mammals have these features
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Theories on early primate evolution 1. Predatory behavior? Problem : Prosimians use smell and hearing more than sight
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Theories on early primate evolution 1. Flowers and Fruits? Flowering plants diversified at about the same time as early primates evolved Vision, flexible hands and feet, opposable digits all necessary for obtaining plant foods on small branches Hypothesis is supported so far!
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Early Primate Fossil Carpolestes 56 mya Grasping feet Opposable big toe with a nail, not a claw Small, arboreal insectivorous mammal (WY) Nat’l Geog, 2002 Nat’l Geog, 2002
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Learning Objective 2 What are the three suborders of primates? Give representative examples of each.
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Suborders of Primates Prosimii (Prosimians) Lemurs, galagos, and lorises Tarsiiformes Tarsiers Anthropoidea (anthropoids) Monkeys, apes, and humans
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Primate Evolution
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Suborders of Primates Prosimii Lemurs Madagascar Diurnal and nocturnal
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Suborders of Primates Prosimii Galagos (bushbabies) Sub-Saharan Africa Nocturnal
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Suborders of Primates Prosimii Lorises Southeast Asia and Africa Nocturnal
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Suborders of Primates Tarsiiformes Tarsiers Indonesia, Phillipines Nocturnal
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KEY CONCEPTS Humans are classified in the order Primates, along with lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, and apes This classification is based on close evolutionary ties
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Learning Objective 3 What is the difference between anthropoids , hominoids , and hominids ?
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Anthropoids Include monkeys, apes, and humans
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Anthropoids Arose during Middle Eocene Epoch, 45mya Originated in Africa or Asia Oldest fossils: Eosimias 42 mya Small, insect eaters, arboreal, diurnal Spread throughout Europe, Asia Africa Arrived in S. America much later Bransiella 26 mya
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Dawinius Dawinius
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Eosimias Eosimias Dawinius Dawinius
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Anthropoids Diurnal Large brain size Cerebrum Learning Voluntary movement Interpretation of sensation
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Anthropoids Monkeys branched into 2 groups: New World monkeys New World monkeys Old World monkeys Old World monkeys
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This note was uploaded on 06/23/2011 for the course BIO 112 taught by Professor Dr.dertein during the Spring '11 term at St. Xavier.

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primate_evolution - The Evolution of Primates Chapter 22...

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