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Unformatted text preview: Foundations of Communication Importance of Comm. Notable statistics: (1974) 85% of personnel officers rated comm. skills as extremely important (1999) 14% of each 40hour workweek is wasted because of poor communication between staff and managers Definition of Communication Latin root: "communicare" "to make common to many, share" "The process of people sharing thoughts, ideas, and feelings with each other in commonly understandable ways." Basic Model of Comm. What does communication look like? Shannon & Weaver's Model Components: Person A/Person B Stimulus & Motivation Encoding & Decoding Frame of Reference Code Channel Feedback Environment Noise A Basic Model
Environment Stimulus; Motivation Encodin g Person A
Intern al noise Extern al noise (Code; chann el) Intern al noise Stimulus; Motivation Decodin g Person B (Feedbac k) Decoding Frame of Reference (Code; chann el) Noise Encodin g Frame of Reference Environment Components: Person A/Person B Person A can be the sender OR the receiver The same is true of Person B Simultaneous exchange Components: Stimulus & Motivation Two things MUST happen before a sender wants to send a message Stimulus Motivation Internal (ex: memory) or external (ex: awkward silence) stimulus triggers a thought, which in turn triggers the desire to communicate Personal benefit from communicating Ex: Professor asks a question a lot of people know the answer, but no one says anything? Why? What motivates someone to speak? EXIGENCE The events that spur people to respond (poverty, environmental degradation, racism) The speaker is participating in something that extends beyond merely whatever they want to say; also not just pandering to whatever the audience wants to hear Components: Encoding & Decoding Encoding Decoding The process of putting a message into the form in which it will be communicated Exs: Loud/soft volume, firm/mild tone, frown/smile, which examples to use The process the receiver goes through in trying to interpret the exact meaning of a message Components: Frame of Reference Our own background and experience Used to encode & decode messages Problems occur when encoder and decoder's frame of reference aren't identical Examples Educational background, race, sex, life experiences, attitudes and personality Includes: Think of it like your own personal window Components: Frame of Reference Related principles No identical frames of reference A Communication Fallacy A message progressing up or down a chain of command may be Leveled Condensed Sharpened Assimilated Embellished 100% communication is not possible Components: Code The symbols that carry the message Three basic communication codes Vocal & Visual Code 69% Language (verbal code) Paralanguage (vocal code) Nonverbal cues (visual code) Verbal Code 31% A Worthwhile Theory Semiotics study of signs/symbols Semantic triangle (Ogden & Richards) Words have no meaning; meaning resides in people Connection between word and thought, and between thought and thing are strong Connection between word and thing is tenuous, at best Lots of room for misinterpretation Thought
Reference Long s of t ear s , warm eyes, , cud dly DOG
Word (Symbol) Thing (Referent) Components: Channel The medium selected to carry the message Considerations in choosing a channel: The importance of the message The needs and abilities of the receiver The amount and speed of feedback required The necessity of a permanent record The cost of the channel The formality or informality required Components: Feedback Advantages Improves accuracy and productivity Increases employee job satisfaction Disadvantages Can cause people to feel under attack psychologically Can be difficult to elicit Past negative experience Components: Feedback Effective Use of Feedback When RECEIVING it from others: Tell them you want it & in what areas Watch for nonverbal responses Use silence to encourage it Set aside time for it Ask questions & use encouraging statements Paraphrase Reward feedback Followup Components: Feedback Effective Use of Feedback When GIVING it, make sure it: Is directed toward behavior (not person) Uses descriptive language (not evaluative) Involves sharing (not giving advice) Includes limited information Is immediate & welltimed Allows for facesaving Components: Environment The time, place, physical and social surroundings Also called climate Determined by the prevailing atmosphere and attitudes of its members Components: Noise Anything that interferes with communication Internal (conditions of the communicator) External (distractions in the environment) Headaches, daydreaming, lack of sleep, lack of knowledge on topic Speaker's poor grammar, phones ringing, cold air in the room, lights that are too dim Competent Communication The message must: Be understood as intended Achieve the desired effect Be ethical The message that counts is the one that is received Characteristics of Communication Inescapable Irreversible Complicated (Barnlund's model) Emphasizes Content and Relationships Governed by Rules Exercise 1 Exercise 2 Exercise 3 Speaking Anxiety Types (real while you speak, anticipated worrying about the speech) Types (physical versus psychological what you do with the physical) Sources of nervousness
Fear of failure Fear of the unknown Fear of the spotlight Fear of breaking the rules Fear of fear Speaking Anxiety Build your confidence Use anxietyreducing techniques Stage fright is common It's usually not visible to audience Prepare Practice Think positively Relax Focus on your audience (find those in the audience who respond well and focus on them) Overcoming Fear
View it as a communication interaction rather than a performance Discuss peak of symptoms right before speech and how they level off after just a minute or two of speaking Factors affecting it: selfesteem, experience, preparedness ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/25/2011 for the course SPCH 230 taught by Professor Pellechia during the Spring '08 term at South Carolina.
- Spring '08