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police history paper - Alicia Deal CJ 734 Assignment#1...

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Alicia Deal 08-30-07 CJ 734 Assignment #1 Police History American policing, according to several researchers, has had a tumultuous history within our society. Beginning approximately in the late 1700s, individual citizens who served as part of the “slave patrols”, according to Hubert and Murphy (1990), were the predecessors of modern police agencies. These patrols, especially found in the South, served to enforce “white” domination over blacks by returning runaway slaves to their owners. By the mid 1800s, modern police detachments had been developed in urban centers, such as New York City and Chicago during a period known as “the political era” (Kelling & Moore, 1988). During this time, police officers had aligned themselves under the influence of political leaders within the urban centers to create These officers were members of the community and did not report to a central headquarters. They were often recruited through the local political leaders of the communities and basically “were a significant resource at the command of local political organizations” (Haller, 1976, 304). Frustrated with the incessant police misconduct and corruption, “reformers” during the early 1900s pushed for organizational and structural changes within police agencies. These changes resulted in what Kelling and Moore described as the “reform era” and is the basis for “traditional policing” ( Greene, 2000; isolated Facilitated by the urging of “reform” leaders and proponents, J. Edgar Hoover and Augustus Vollmer, policing became centralized and “professional” (Kelling & Moore, 1988; & Douthit, 1975). In this form of policing, officers were isolated from the communities in which they policed so as to be impartial and impersonal toward citizens. Also, officer duties were limited to law enforcement and crime control, which further weakened the relationship that officers had with community members (Kelling & Moore, 1988).
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