final exam cj592 - Alicia Deal 05-13-04 CJ 592 Final Exam...

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Alicia Deal CJ 592 05-13-04 Final Exam Methodological Research Issue 1: One research methodological issue that requires out attention is from an ethical standpoint; it is the issue of confidentiality and the subjects' right to privacy. Criminologists and other social scientists want to be viewed as professionals, not “used car salespeople with a gimmick.” Participants in research studies are crucial to the conduct of research, which enables the researcher to make scientific advancements and breakthroughs. Therefore, the relationship between participant and researcher should be one based on trust, respect, and accurate information. Consequently, the research is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of the participants. The Belmont Report states that there are three underlying principles that dictate the implementation of ethical research: respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. These principles can be accomplished by following the guidelines for obtaining informed consent, having a respect for privacy and confidentiality, and utilizing a risk/benefit assessment. In 1971, the Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) developed a set of guidelines for acquiring informed consent. These guidelines comprised of six characteristics: a fair explanation of the procedures to be followed, and their purposes, including identifications of any experimental procedures; a description of any attendant discomforts and risks that can be expected; a description of any benefits reasonably to be expected; a disclosure of any appropriate alternative procedures that might be advantageous for the subject; an offer to answer any inquiries concerning the procedures; and instruction that the person is free to withdraw consent and discontinue participation at any time without prejudice to him/her. Another important aspect of respect for persons, besides being treated as independent agents, is to provide added protection for vulnerable populations, who lack autonomy. Vulnerable populations include children, prisoners, people with severe mental disorders, pregnant 1
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women, and the elderly. Some safeguards for these populations include obtaining parental or guardian consent, or acquiring legal authorization. In order to protect a subjects' privacy, the National Institute of Justice have created regulations with regard to confidentiality. Researchers are forbidden to use any information that may identify the participants. In 1973, the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act established a “shield law.” This law provides a “governmental immunity from prosecution” if the researcher is subpoenaed. The most important reason for research to be conducted in an ethical way is to avoid harming participants. In order to decide whether a research study will harm the respondents, researchers are advised to utilize a risk/benefit ratio. In other words, the possible benefits must outweigh the potential risks and dangers to the participants. In order to overcome this problem, researchers can utilize several methods to ensure
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This note was uploaded on 06/30/2011 for the course CJ 592 taught by Professor Lyons during the Spring '04 term at Sam Houston State University.

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final exam cj592 - Alicia Deal 05-13-04 CJ 592 Final Exam...

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