Final - Alicia Deal 05-11-05 CJ 660 Final l1 1.) Compare...

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Alicia Deal 05-11-05 CJ 660 Final l 1 1.) Compare and contrast the constructs/disorders of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder. Next, explain which type of general approach has been used to research these constructs-positivist or constructionist-be sure to provide several examples from our readings in identifying the main tenets of the approach that you choose. (1.5 pages) Psychopathy is not a diagnosis of the DSMIV; however, antisocial personality disorder (APD) is. While APD encompasses only antisocial behaviors, psychopathy is a combination of both antisocial behaviors and personality characteristics. APD is a personality disorder that is prevalent among 3% males and only 1% females. The DSMIV states that antisocial behaviors consistent of APD include deceitfulness, irresponsibility, recklessness, impulsivity. In order to be diagnosable these symptoms must have appeared since the age of 15. Other behaviors such as bullying, fighting, cruelty to animals and/or people, setting fires, stealing, and vandalism must be present before the age of 15. Robert Hare defines psychopathy according to the PCL-R, which is a checklist that contains 20 items based on two factors. Factor one includes antisocial personality characteristics, such as egocentricity, callousness, manipulativeness, superficial charm, and a lack of remorse. Factor two includes features that are conducive to antisocial behaviors or lifestyle, such as promiscuity, juvenile delinquency, impulsivity, and drug/alcohol abuse. An individual with psychopathy can also have APD; yet most individuals with APD do not have psychopathic traits. Among inmates, only 20% exhibit both APD and psychopathy. In the prison population, those with psychopathic traits compose of 10-15%, while 50% have been diagnosed with APD. While both are violent and can exhibit consistent antisocial behaviors throughout a lifespan, psychopaths are more violent and begin their criminality at an earlier age. Psychopaths also commit more crimes and recidivate more than those with APD. Psychopathy and APD research is positivistic oriented. Positivism seeks to explain the deviant acts and determine what causes it, whereas constructivism focuses on the reaction of the deviant act and why society brands it as such. Etiological research of psychopathy and APD tends to focus on biological, psychological, or sociological causes. Some proposed biological causes of APD include brain damage, lack of impulse control due to genetic problems, faulty brakes or problems with neurotransmitters, and abnormalities in central nervous system which results in less emotional arousal. Sociological and psychological causes include child abuse and other environmental trauma that affects the individual's cognition. Much evidence exists that shows that the environment, not biology, has a primary culprit in the emergence of APD. Of the types of child abuse that have been linked to APD, physical abuse is the most often cited cause. Most
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This note was uploaded on 06/30/2011 for the course CJ 660 taught by Professor Miller during the Spring '05 term at Sam Houston State University.

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Final - Alicia Deal 05-11-05 CJ 660 Final l1 1.) Compare...

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