Essay on the Psychology and Sociology of Work and the Worker
It is the duty of the “manager” to manage both the work and the worker; in other words, to increase
productivity and to ensure that the workers are adequately taken care of in order to perform their duties/job.
However, for the “manager,” there is very little for which we know about work and the worker.
“what is needed to make work productive is quite different from what is needed to make the worker achieving”
As Drucker states, “work” has always been an extension of the human condition.
Yet only recently have
scientists and theorists begun to look more closely at the “organized” conditions of work.
Even more recently
has the worker been scrutinizingly studied.
Fredrick Taylor became the first individual to systematically
examine work through his “'scientific management' tests.”
Drucker mentions a concept of
“knowledge work,” which simply results in an exchange of knowledge
from one worker to another. It encompasses three elements in which to understand work: analysis, synthesis into
a process of production, and feedback control.
Analysis simply implies that the basic operations of work must
be identified, analyzed, and finally, arranged “in logical, balanced, and rational sequence.”
The synthesis into a
process of production is the second means of comprehending work in an empirical way.
Drucker states that
work has to be synthesized and put into a process.
That is, a principles of product which is the knowledge to
combine “individual operations into individual jobs and individual jobs into 'production'” (p. 182).
Drucker asserts that work needs a “built-in control” in the form of a feedback mechanism.
purpose is to sense and change unexpected deviations and to maintain the work process at the level needed to
obtain the desired results.
There are three different ways in which work and the worker are studied thus far: industrial physiology,
industrial psychology, and human relations.
Industrial physiology was popularized by Hugo Muensterberg, a
German Harvard psychologist.
This form of analyzing work
involves “the relationship of such things as
lighting, tool and machine speeds, design of the work place, and so on, to the human being who is the worker”
Industrial psychology was brought to the forefront by Englishman Cyril Burt.
This form of work study
includes the study of the relationship between work and the aptitudes of the workers, or their skills and motor