personality outline #2.rtf

personality outline #2.rtf - Alicia Deal Psy 431 John...

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Alicia Deal 11-11-03 Psy 431 Extra Credit John Dollard and Neal Miller Hull's Theory of Learning -Cornerstone: concept of habit (an association between a stimulus and a response). -Equates reinforcement with drive reduction; in other words, for learning to take place, the organism must engage in an activity that leads to the elimination or reduction of a need. -Dollard and Miller synthesized Hull's theory with Freud's theory. Drive, Cue, Response, and Response: -Dollard's and Miller's theory of personality relies on these four concept. Drive: -any strong stimulus that impels an organism to action and whose elimination or reduction is reinforcing. -drives may be: 1. internal-such as hunger or thirst 2. external- such as a loud noise or intense heat or cold 3. primary-in that it is directly related to survival such as hunger, pain, and elimination 4. secondary- learned such as fear, anxiety, or the need to be successful or attractive -is the motivational concept of D & M's theory; it is the energizer of personality. Cue: -a stimulus that indicates the appropriate direction an activity should take. -cues guide behavior Response: -any overt or intentional action elicited by a stimulus -overt- it can be directly instrumental in reducing a drive -intentional- entailing the thinking, planning, and reasoning that will ultimately reduce a drive. -responses are elicited by the drive and cues present and are aimed at reducing or eliminating the drive. -learning- the rearrangement of response probabilities that results when certain responses are reinforced and others are not. Reinforcement: -in Hull's theory of learning, drive reduction constitutes reinforcement -reinforcement theory- “In order to learn one must want something, notice something, do something and get something.” -if a cue leads to a response and the response leads to reinforcement, the association between the cue and the response will be strengthened. If this process is repeated, eventually the organism develops a strong habit.
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Alicia Deal 11-11-03 Psy 431 Extra Credit Response Hierarchies -habit family hierarchy: group of responses elicited by a single stimulus that are arranged in accordance with their probability of occurrence. -innate hierarchy of response: -habit family hierarchy that is genetically determined that is triggered by certain drive conditions -exists for only a short period of time -as certain responses in the hierarchy are reinforced, they change their position in the hierarchy. -dominant response: that response in a habit family hierarchy which has the greatest probability of occurrence -initial hierarchy of responses: hierarchy of responses elicited by a cue before new learning occurs -resultant hierarchy of responses: hierarchy of responses elicited by a cue after learning has taken place. -if the dominant response in a hierarchy always reduces the existing drive, no
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This note was uploaded on 06/30/2011 for the course PSY 431 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Sam Houston State University.

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personality outline #2.rtf - Alicia Deal Psy 431 John...

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