Midterm Study Guide - Anthropology 101 Midterm Study Guide...

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Unformatted text preview: Anthropology 101 Midterm Study Guide anthropology: the study of humans and ancestors 4 fields of anthropology cultural: living culture ethnographies, ethnologies linguistic: language in social & cultural context across space and time historical language, sociolinguistics biological: forensic, physical paleoanthropology: human evolution via fossil records; genetics, grown & development; primatology archaeological: anything older than 50 years reconstructs, describes & interprets past human behavior & cultural patterns through material remains food rubbish: critical culture: learned traditions & customs that govern beliefs & behaviors [acquired] dependent on environment debatable that culture is the human adaptive system ethnicity biology basic values, language & customs shared interactive community members identify themselves & each other binary oppositions: impose order on a chaotic universe conceptual oppositions context dependent gender: social correlate of sex, but not genetic roles, activities, behaviors assigned to a certain group socialization: process of transmitting culture & ideas society: groups living & sharing aspects of culture class, caste: a category of people who have approximately the same access to power and resources worldview: the way each individual sees the world applied anthropology: used to identify, assess & solve contemporary social problems medical, environmental, forensic, developmental colonial histories emphasize understanding cultural contexts of historical records traditional/oral histories: myth & folk history cross-cultural: mode of comparison not limited to a particular culture or group comparisons/contrasts cultural relativism: principle assuming that human customs & lifeways are meaningful & coherent in their native social context emic: insider perspective pass test of natives etic: outsider perspective ethnocentrism: belief that ones culture is superior to others survival of the fittest: Herbert Spencer similar to racism ethnography: process of writing about people you study [fieldwork required] descriptive of a specific group/community ethnology: use data from ethnography & find links, connections & differences synthetic/cross-cultural holistic: human biology, culture & language [prehistory, physical, social, etc.] science: a framework for systematically acquiring information about the physical world and testing that information through controlled tests anthropology: no controlled tests history: the discipline that records and interprets past events involving human beings participant observation: the preferred anthropological method involves living as a member of the society and sharing in day-to-day activities usually for an extended period of time affine: relation by marriage consanguine: relation by blood...
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Midterm Study Guide - Anthropology 101 Midterm Study Guide...

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