2 Distillation - Phil Pearson, Rachael Rosales, Roshni...

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Phil Pearson, Rachael Rosales, Roshni Sheth CH 236 QZ September 15, 2010 Experiment 2: Distillation A. Introduction During the course of the experiment, two different methods of distillation-simple and fractional- were utilized. Simple distillation and fractional distillation of methanol and water were performed to evaluate the efficiency of each method. Fractional distillation was also used to determine the identity of an unknown solution. By observing the data obtained from this fractional distillation, the identity of the unknown can be determined by comparing the given melting points of possible unknowns with the range of data taken from the experiment. Usually, liquid mixtures are purified by distillation. This process involves separating the components of a solution based on their boiling points. Simple distillation is most efficient when the boiling points of the components of the solution have a difference of about 100 ºC, and fractional distillation works most effectively when the components have similar boiling points. This can be explained by the fact that fractional distillation uses a fractionating column in the distillation apparatus. This fractionating column was filled with copper turnings in this experiment. The fractionating column was stuffed to increase the surface area of the tube, allowing vapor to undergo a series of distillations in the column itself. B. Experimental Table of Reagents Substance Physical Properties Water Boiling Point: 100.0 o C Methanol Boiling Point: 64.7 o C Molecular Weight: 32 g/mol For the first part of the experiment, a simple and a fractional distillation of water and methanol were performed. A 50:50 ratio of water and methanol were mixed. For the simple distillation, a simple distillation apparatus was assembled. It consisted of a longneck round-bottomed flask, a distillation column, and a distillation head. A small beaker was used to collect the distillate in this experiment. A damp paper towel was wrapped around the
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distillation head. The thermometer was placed with its bulb just below the distillations head’s opening. A hot sand bath was used to heat the apparatus. The sand bath was plugged into a rheostat where the temperature can be controlled. For the simple distillation two mL of water and two mL of methanol were measured using a graduated cylinder. They were then added to a round-bottomed flask along with four boiling chips to prevent bumping and ensure even boiling. The flask was then attached to the apparatus and placed in the hot sand bath with the sand coming to the level of the liquid inside the flask. The rheostat was set to between 4 and 7 on the dial.
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This note was uploaded on 06/28/2011 for the course CH 236 taught by Professor Nikles during the Fall '09 term at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

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2 Distillation - Phil Pearson, Rachael Rosales, Roshni...

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