BY 123 Lab Report - The Effects of Variations in...

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The Effects of Variations in Temperatures, pH Values, Enzyme Concentrations, and Substrate Concentrations on the Enzymatic Activity of Catecholase Roshni Sheth March 25, 2010 BY 123L: Section P9
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Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts that are able to speed up a reaction by lowering the activation energy of that reaction, (Campbell, 2008). In order for living systems to survive, enzymes must be present to speed up metabolic reactions because the reactions do not occur rapidly enough naturally (Whitford, 2005). Most enzymes are proteins (Campbell, 2008). A unique fact about enzymes is that they are not changed or expended by chemical reactions, but rather, they can be reused after the reaction has been completed (Helms, 1998). The enzyme catecholase makes the product benzoquinone, which links to form long, branched chains that make up the melanoid pigments that make the potato or fruit become darker (Helms, 1998). Potatoes and some fruits become brown when they react with the air because they contain catecholase, which makes the aforementioned reaction go (Helms, 1998). Certain factors, such as changes in temperature, pH levels, enzyme concentration, and substrate concentration, can affect enzymatic activity. As temperature increases, enzymatic activity increases, due to an increased number of collisions between enzymatic molecules and substrate molecules, until the temperature goes above the optimum temperature. For most enzymes, temperature of about 40°C will denature the enzyme, which means that the secondary and tertiary protein structures of the enzyme are destroyed (Helms, 1998). Similarly, as the pH value increases, the amount of enzymatic activity increases until the pH passes the optimum pH value for the enzyme (Helms, 1998). pH values that are higher or lower than the optimum will produce low rates of enzymatic activity because of denaturation (Helms, 1998). As enzyme concentration increases, the rate of enzymatic activity will increase proportionately only if there is an excess amount of substrate present in the solution. If the amount of substrate is not in
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excess, then the substrate will act as a limiting reagent in the reaction (Helms, 1998). If the enzyme concentration is constant, and the amount of substrate is increased, the rate of enzymatic activity will increase until the enzyme molecules are saturated and cannot hold anymore substrate molecules (Helms, 1998). The purpose of this study is to observe the effects of the four aforementioned factors on the enzymatic activity of catecholase. Hypothesis:
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This note was uploaded on 06/28/2011 for the course BY-LAB 123L taught by Professor Cusic/whitehead during the Spring '10 term at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

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BY 123 Lab Report - The Effects of Variations in...

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