TEST 2 - Enlightenment 18:35 Philosophs Doubt Science can...

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Enlightenment 18:35 Philosophs  Doubt Science can prove anything Nature is rational Chaos evolves from our lack of understanding nature’s laws Reason is the best path to truth Belief in progress o We can move ourselves forward o We are constantly needing new frontiers to work toward A desire mankind out of ignorance and tyranny  Idea of contractual government New think tanks  Salons o Where the philosophs go to talk and bounce ideas off each other o Wealthy women hosts them o Women become involved o Madame Chalet Women  o Not allowed to be members of the scientific community
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o Doesn’t mean that they weren’t thinkers Agrarian vs. industrial o Agrarian Farm Nature Nature’s clock o Industrial Factory Man made Industrial clock Mary Shelley- Frankenstein o Metaphor for industrialization o Its not natural Gradually break the family apart Economic changes in the enlightenment Physiocrats  o Wealth comes not from the gold supply but from agricultural production o Call for simplified taxes o Laissez fare  Government should not interfere with the natural workings of the  economy “Leave it alone” Adam Smith o British political economist
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o Argued that private property is a natural right o Motivates individuals to increase their own advantages o Law of supply and demand Invisible Hand of Economy Natural state of the economy o The market would produce the best goods at the lowest prices and provide  for the greatest public good. o Labor is the source of value o Capitalism Law of supply and demand o Self regulated capitalistic society Not a good idea Enlightened Despots o Top down change Distrust of the people Philosphes thought it offered best opportunity for change o Enlightened ideas o Sees himself a custodian of the people “I am the first citizen” o Maria Theresa Holy Roman Empire Ruled with her son joseph
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Had to fight for her throne War of the Austrian succession Pragmatic Sanction Secured her inheritance Provides for a female ruler for the Holy roman empire Streamlined the govt administration and military Religious toleration Inoculated her family for small pox to show the other people in the  empire that it was ok Initiated compulsory elementary education  o Joseph II Did not get along with the people as well as his mother Freedom of the press Freedom of religion Physiocratic economic reforms Overrode the nobility  Many reforms were dissolved after his death Abolished Serfdom Government based on work not on birth o Frederick II of Prussia Well educated Domestic policy
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