Investigating the Effects of Temperature

Investigating the Effects of Temperature - Investigating...

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Investigating the Effects of Temperature, pH, Enzyme Concentration, and Substrate Concentration on the Enzymatic Activity of Catecholase David Mulkey
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Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts which are substances that initiate or accelerate chemical reactions. During these chemical reactions, the enzyme is not consumed or changed. Without enzymes, most biochemical reactions would not occur fast enough to fulfill the metabolic needs and other life functions of organisms (Helms, 1998). Most enzymes are proteins made of long chains of amino acids. For this reason, anything that affects a protein can affect an enzyme. There are several factors that can affect an enzyme and its proficiency including: pH, temperature, the enzyme concentration, and the substrate concentration. For each of these factors there is an optimal point of proficiency meaning that at a certain point the enzyme will perform at its maximum capacity. This also means that if these factors are altered then the factors can have varying effects on the enzyme. For example, if the temperature of an enzyme is dramatically decreased then the reaction will occur at a much slower pace because there is not enough kinetic energy available. Another example would be that if an enzyme is placed in an environment that has a pH that is too basic or acidic then the enzyme will cease to function properly, or it will not function at all. Another instance would be that as the concentration of the enzyme was increased the rate of the reaction would increase. In addition if the concentration of the substrate was increased then the rate of the reaction would increase until the substrate hit a point where the enzyme could no longer act upon it fast enough, and the rate of reaction will hold a constant pace. Each enzyme has a three dimensional shape that consists of one or more polypeptide chains that are folded to form an active site which is a special area into which a substrate (material being acted on by the enzyme) will fit (Helms, 1998). Enzymes work by a substrate binding to an enzyme’s active site, which helps initiate the process by lowering the activation energy of the reaction (Campbell & Reece, 2008). The purpose of this experiment is to
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determine the effects of pH, temperature, enzyme concentration, and the substrate concentration on the enzyme catecholase. Catecholase is an enzyme commonly found in fruits and vegetables, such as potatoes (Helms, 1998). When exposed to oxygen in the air, catechol is oxidized with the assistance of catecholase producing benzoquinone and water (Helms 1998). This is responsible for the browning of the fruits and vegetables when left in the air. Hypothesis: A hypothesis is a tentative answer to a question or a testable statement that will be either supported or rejected by the experiment. Each of the four factors that can affect enzymatic activity has a hypothesis. The hypothesis for the affects of temperature on the enzyme would be that when the enzyme is heated the rate of the reaction will increase until the enzyme is over
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This note was uploaded on 06/29/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY 115L taught by Professor March during the Spring '10 term at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

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Investigating the Effects of Temperature - Investigating...

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