9-17_11_AM_Paramyxo - Par amyxovir uses M easles mumps par...

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Paramyxoviruses Measles, mumps, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus
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Case presentation The patient was a 9 year old female who was brought to her pediatrician in February because of fever and rash for 2 days. She also had a headache, sore throat, and mild cough. There were no gastrointestinal symptoms. No one else in the household was ill, but she had a classmate with similar illness. On examination she was alert and in mild distress. Her temperature was 38.3 o C, pulse rate was 110 beats/min, blood pressure was 90/60 mmHg, and respiratory rate was 40/min. She had a mild conjunctivitis. Her posterior pharynx was injected, and petechiae were present on her soft palate. The buccal mucosa was injected with scattered raised papular lesions. She had a macular rash on her trunk, face and arms. Her chest radiograph was normal. A throat swab was sent for culture and blood was drawn for viral serologic examination. Subsequently, the throat culture was read as negative for group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Acute and convalescent phase (obtained 2 weeks later) serum specimens confirmed the clinical diagnosis of measles, and the school nurse was notified.
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Human pathogens in the order Mononegavirales Family Subfamily Genus Human pathogens Rhabdoviridae Lyssavirus Rabies virus Filoviridae Marburghvirus Marburgh virus Ebolavirus Ebola virus Paramyxoviridae Paramyxovirinae Rubulavirus Mumps virus, Parainfluenzavirus 2,4 Respirovirus Parainfluenza virus 1,3 Henipavirus Hendra virus, Nipah virus Morbillivirus Measles virus Pneumovirinae Pneumovirus Respiratory syncytial virus
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Paramyxoviridae structure From Schaechter’s Mechanisms of Microbial Disease; 4 th ed.; Engleberg, DiRita & Dermody; Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2007; Fig. 34-1 HN/H/G: Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) in mumps and PIV Hemagglutinin (H) only in measles Glycoprotein (G) in RSV ,hMPV; no hemagglutinin or neuraminidase activity (negative sense)
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Paramyxovirus structure Paramyxovirus electron micrograph http://web.uct.ac.za/depts/mmi/stannard/paramyx.html
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Mononegavirales genome structure N P M F H/HN/ G L 3’ 5’ N P M G L 3’ 5’ Paramyxoviridae Rhabdoviridae Notes: 1)HN = mumps, PIV; H = measles; G = RSV ,hMPV, rabies 2)Rabies lacks F 3)P encodes 2-3 proteins in Paramyxovirinae (P/V/C) 4)Rubula- , Pneumo- , and Metapneumo- contain extra genes (M2, SH) 5)F & G switched in Pneumoviruses 10-15 kb in size
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Mononegavirales gene function Gene product Virion location Function Nucleoprotein (N or NP) Nucleocapsid Protects RNA genome Polymerase phosphoprotein (P) Associated with nucleocapsid RNA polymerase subunit Matrix (M) Between nucleocapsid and envelope Virion assembly Fusion factor (F) Transmembrane envelope glycoprotein Fusion and entry Hemagglutinin- neuraminidase (HN); hemagglutinin (H); glycoprotein (G) Transmembrane envelope glycoprotein Viral attachment protein Large protein (L) Associated with nucleocapsid RNA polymerase
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Mononegavirales replication Entirely cytoplasmic Attachment by HN/H/G protein to cells - neutralizing antibody is directed
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