Basic_Mycoses - Fungi Systemic Mycoses Alfred Lewin...

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Mycoses November 29, 2010 Alfred Lewin References http://www.doctorfungus.org/ Mechanisms of Microbial  Disease, 4th ed.  Southwick,  Infectious Diseases  in 30 Days
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Why Care? Fungi are a leading cause of  nosocomial infections. Fungal infections are a major  problem in immune  suppressed people. Fungal infections are often  mistaken for bacterial  infections, with fatal  consequences.
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Archea Bacteria Eukaria Domain Kingdom Planta Animalia Mycota (Mycetae) Classification of Fungi
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Four major phyla of  Fungi      Chytridiomycota — sexual and asexual spores  motile, with posterior flagella  Zygomycota — sexual spores are thick walled  resting spores called zygospores  Ascomycota —spores borne internally in a  sac called an ascus    Basidiomycota —spores borne externally on a  club-shaped structure called a basidium  Deuteromycetes  or  fungi imperfecti , have no  known sexual state in their life cycle.
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Characteristics of fungi      A.  eukaryotic , non- vascular organisms      B.   reproduce  by means of spores ( conidia ),  usually wind-disseminated      C.  both  sexual (meiotic) and asexual (mitotic)  spores  may be produced, depending on the  species and conditions      D. typically  not motile , although a few (e.g.  Chytrids) have a motile phase.  diploid states     F.  vegetative body  may be unicellular ( yeasts or multicellular  moulds  composed of  microscopic threads called  hyphae .     G.  cell walls  composed of mostly of chitin and  glucan.     
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More Characteristics of  Fungi A. fungi are  heterotrophic  ( “other feeding,”  must feed on preformed organic material), not  autotrophic ( “self feeding,” make their own  food by photosynthesis).  - Unlike animals (also heterotrophic), which  ingest then digest, fungi digest then ingest.  -Fungi produce exoenzymes to accomplish  this  I.  Most fungi store their food as  glycogen  (like  animals).  Plants store food as starch. K. Fungal cell membranes have a unique sterol,  ergosterol , which  replaces cholesterol found  in mammalian cell membranes  L.  Tubule protein —production of a different type  in microtubules formed during nuclear  division. 
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Fungal Morphology       Yeast  Hyphae (threads)  making up a mycelium Mould Encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans  
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Dimorphism Many pathogenic fungi are  dimorphic , forming moulds at  ambient temperatures but yeasts  at body temperature. 
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Antifungal Agents Make use of biochemical differences  between “us” and “them” Target differences in membrane sterol  (ergosterol vs. cholesterol)
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Basic_Mycoses - Fungi Systemic Mycoses Alfred Lewin...

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