Summary - Summary Basic virus structure DNA or RNA Capsid...

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Summary
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Basic virus structure Capsid protein Nucleocapsid Naked capsid virus DNA RNA or = + Nucleocapsid Lipid membrane, glycoproteins Enveloped virus +
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Properties of enveloped viruses Envelope is sensitive to Drying Heat Detergents Acid Consequences Must stay wet during transmission Transmission in large droplets and secretions Cannot survive in the gastrointestinal tract Do not need to kill cells in order to spread May require both a humoral and a cellular immune response Adapted from Murray, P.R. Rosenthal K.S., Pfaller, M.A. (2005) Medical Microbiology, 5 th edition, Elsevier Mosby, Philadelphia, PA Box 6-5
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Properties of naked capsid viruses Capsid is resistant to Drying Heat Detergents Acids Proteases Consequences Can survive in the gastrointestinal tract Retain infectivity on drying Survive well on environmental surfaces Spread easily via fomites Must kill host cells for release of mature virus particles Humoral antibody response may be sufficient to neutralize infection Adapted from Murray, P.R. Rosenthal K.S., Pfaller, M.A. (2005) Medical Microbiology, 5 th edition, Elsevier Mosby, Philadelphia, PA , Box 6-4
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Classification of Human Viruses "Group" Family Genome Genome size (kb) Capsid Envelope dsDNA Poxviridae dsDNA, linear 130 to 375 Ovoid Yes Herpesviridae dsDNA, linear 125 to 240 Icosahedral Yes Adenoviridae dsDNA, linear 26 to 45 Icosahedral No Polyomaviridae dsDNA, circular 5 Icosahedral No Papillomaviridae dsDNA, circular 7 to 8 Icosahedral No ssDNA Anellovirus ssDNA circular 3 to 4 Isometric No Parvoviradae ssDNA, linear, (- or +/-) 5 Icosahedral No Retro Hepadnaviridae dsDNA (partial), circular 3 to 4 Icosahedral Yes Retroviridae ssRNA (+), diploid 7 to 13 Spherical, rod or cone shaped Yes dsRNA Reoviridae dsRNA, segmented 19 to 32 Icosahedral No ssRNA (-) Rhabdoviridae ssRNA (-) 11 to 15 Helical Yes Filoviridae ssRNA (-) 19 Helical Yes Paramyxoviridae ssRNA (-) 10 to 15 Helical Yes Orthomyxoviridae ssRNA (-), segmented 10 to 13.6 Helical Yes Bunyaviridae ssRNA (-, ambi), segmented 11 to 19 Helical Yes Arenaviridae ssRNA (-, ambi), segmented 11 Circular, nucleosomal Yes Deltavirus ssRNA (-) circular 2 Spherical Yes ssRNA (+) Picornaviridae ssRNA (+) 7 to 9 Icosahedral No Calciviridae ssRNA (+) 7 to 8 Icosahedral No Hepevirus ssRNA (+) 7 Icosahedral No Astroviridae ssRNA (+) 6 to 7 Isometric No Coronaviridae ssRNA (+) 28 to 31 Helical Yes Flaviviridae ssRNA (+) 10 to 12 Spherical Yes Togaviridae ssRNA (+) 11 to 12 Icosahedral Yes Fields Vriology (2007) 5th edition, Knipe, DM & Howley, PM, eds, Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia Table 2.1
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dsDNA ssDNA (+)ssRNA (-)ssRNA dsRNA RNA retro DNA retro Virus replication: variations on the theme
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Summary: structure, classification & replication Structure Nucleic acid in a protein shell, +/- lipid envelope Structure impacts on biological properties Classification Many virus families, organized by structure and biology Replication Generic scheme Varying strategies depending on nucleic acid
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Summary: laboratory virology
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  • Spring '11
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  • viremia, Ovoid Icosahedral Icosahedral Icosahedral Icosahedral Envelope, Icosahedral Icosahedral Icosahedral

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