Counterterrorism Introduction-student S3L1 (1)

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Unformatted text preview: Counterterrorism International Relations Theory IR theory attempts to construct a conceptual framework on which international relations can be analyzed Theories include: Realism Liberalism/Idealism Structural/neo-realism Behavioralism Marxism Mercantilism/British Model Feminism Prominent positivist theories: Realists & Idealists International Relations Theory Realists State is unitary actor State is primary unit of analysis Exist in a anarchic, self-help system Relationship b/w states is competitive Idealists State is not necessarily unitary actor State is not necessarily primary unit of analysis are more cooperative in nature Rational actor is not automatically assumed Relationships b/w states are economically or culturally based (low politics) Morality can not be ignored States are motivated by preferences Power is relative-sum States are autonomous Actors are rational States are motivated by power (high politics) Politics are amoral Power is zero-sum How is IR theory relevant to today's study of counterterrorism? International Relations Theory Realists State is unitary actor State is primary unit of analysis States are autonomous and exist in an anarchic, self-help system Relationship b/w states is competitive States are rational States are motivated by power (high politics) Politics are amoral Idealists State is not necessarily unitary actor State is not necessarily primary unit of analysis are more cooperative in nature Rational actor is not automatically assumed Relationships b/w states are economically or culturally based (low politics) Morality can not be ignored States are motivated by preferences International Relations Theory The Issue of Hegemony Hegemony: The Double-Edged Sword War Hawks Term has connotation of: Promoting diplomatic or military aggression by governments Neoconservatism political philosophy that embraces using American economic and military power to "bring" liberalism, democracy, and human rights to other countries Used to describe advocating non-violent means of conflict resolution b/w states & entities Range from violence for defense only to complete abolition of military Most maintain that violence is morally wrong Diplomacy Doves/pacifists' The Actors: Barak Obama 44th President of US: 2009-present US Senator: 2005-2008 Foreign Relations, Homeland Security, European Affairs State Senator: 1997-2004 Joseph Biden US Vice President: 2009-President US Senator: 1973-2009 Chair of US Foreign Relations, Chair of Int. Narcotic control Causes The Actors: Hillary Clinton US Secretary of State: 2009-present US Senator: 2001-2009 Armed Services committee First lady: 1993-2001 Robert Gates US Secretary of Defense: 2006-present CIA director: 1991-1993 CIA dep. Director 1986-1989 NSA advisor: 1989-1991 Military service: 1967-1969 PhD is Russian & Soviet History The actors: George W. Bush 43th President of US: 2001-2008 Governor of Texas: 1995-2000 Air Guard: 1968-74 Son of 41st President Vice President Director, Council on Foreign Relations CIA Director Chief liaison to China Ambassador to the UN US Representative Naval Pilot Richard Cheney 46th Vice President of US Secretary of Defense: 1989-93 US Representative: 1979-89 White House Chief of Staff: 1975-77 The actors: Colin Powell Secretary of State: 2001-05 Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff: 1989-93 National Security Advisor: 1987-89 General, US Army: 1958-93 Condaleeza Rice Secretary of State: 2005-2009 NSA Advisor: 2001-2005 Vascilated b/w gov't advisement & academia The actors: Donald Rumsfeld White House Chief of Staff: 1974-5 13th & 21st Secretary of Defense: 1975-77, 2001-06 US Diplomat to NATO: 1973-4 US Representative: 1963-69 Naval pilot: 1954-89 The Actors: Bill Clinton US President: 1992-2000 Governor of AK: 1979-1981 Attorney General of AK: 1977-79 Secretary of State: 1993-1997 Deputy Secretary of State: 1977-81 Deputy Attorney General: 1967-69 Secretary of State:1997-2001 US Ambassador to UN: 1993-97 Warren Christopher Madeline Albright: Les Aspin Secretary of Defense: 1993-94 US Representative: 1971-1993 US Army: 19661968 Secretary of Defense: 1994-97 Secretary of Defense: 1997-2001 US Senator: 1979-1997 US Representative: 1973-79 William Perry William S. Cohen What is relevance to counterterrorism? Leadership and real-world experience during the Cold War Shaped world view, political ideology, & international relations orientations and policies Continuing Cold War Paradigm in Pre 9/11 Policy Multiple warnings of terror strikes Traditional deterrence no longer sufficient to prevent terror Unannounced attacks present greatest risk to security Terrorism was a stand-alone phenomenon Events were w/out geopolitical reference or strategic content Academic community: terrorism is too policy oriented to be of any scholarly significance . Cold War/Realist view of terror 9/11 reaction was the same paradigm of as Cold War Immediate declaration of (global) War on terror State-centric GW quotes: " On September 11th, enemies of freedom committed an act of war against our country. American have known wars- but for past 136 years, they have been wars on foreign soil, except for one Sunday in 1941. Americans have known the casualties of war- but not at the center of a great city on a peaceful morning. Americans have know surprise attacks- but never before on thousands of civilians. All of this was brought upon us in a single day- and night fell on a different world, a world where freedom itself is under attack" (September 20, 2001) "Either you are with us or you are with the terrorists. From this day forward, any nation that continues to harbor or support terrorism will be regarded by the United States as a hostile regime" State-to-state approach to warfare SOPs established by Cold War paradigm Not prepared for cells & interstate networks Post 9/11 Counterterrorism Policy Bush Doctrine Make the world Safer & Better As sole remaining superpower, US has obligation to maintain & strengthen its global supremacy [This view] "is linked to the belief, common among powerful states, that its values are universal and their spread will benefit the entire world" (Jervis, 2003, 366) Post 9/11 Counterterrorism Policy Bush Doctrine (continued) Preemption Before Threats Become Imminent Deterrence- the promise of massive retaliation Deterrence theory is a military strategy developed during the Cold War Containment- Cold War policy using military, economic, and diplomatic strategies to stall the spread of Communism and enhance America's security and influence abroad, and prevent the "domino effect" Post 9/11 Counterterrorism Policy Bush Doctrine (Continued) Unilateral Use of Force US will act unilaterally in the face of imminent threats when there may not be time or support for getting a consensus for preemptive action Combat "axis of evil" Evaluation of Bush Doctrine Critiques: Will create more catastrophic terror events than eliminateGordon Will create more Iraq's (state building disasters) in the future- Bacevich Diplomacy & multi-lateral pressure would be more productive- Obama during campaign (sounds state centric) Counterterrorism intel should inform, not make, policy -Leiter Responses: No better response to solving terror threat, long-term has emerged -Nacos US Counterterrorism Efforts Prior to 9/11 Under purview of FBI & local law enforcement Approached same as a man-made or natural emergency Responses to 1993 NY bombings, Oklahoma City 1995, Tokyo bombing (1995) 27 Civil Support teams from National Guard Commission on Terrorism Report (2000) 4 Glaring problems with US counterterrorism efforts: Lack of information sharing as most glaring problem in US counterterrorism efforts Insufficient human intelligence Lack of state-of-the-art information technology Shortage of linguists Governmental Response to Counterterrorism efforts After 9/11 PATRIOT Act Six weeks after 9/11 congress passed the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 Authorized: Sneak & peak searches in homes, office, and other private places w/out informing targets Expansion of wiretapping Expansion of information sharing b/w governmental entities Relaxing of requirements for justification of subpoenas of public & private entities Longer detention w/out formal charges or trial Requirement of fingerprints & photos at points of entrance to US Department of Homeland Security Created in response to 9/11 in 2002 Currently headed by Janet Napolitano Charged protecting mainland US from terror attacks and natural and man-made disasters Motto: Preserving our Freedoms, Protecting America Created to streamline, better organize, and reduce redundancy in counterterrorism efforts Improve communication and coordination b/w gov't entities www.dhs.gov Five directives (each headed by an undersecretary) Border and transportation directorate Also houses INS Immigration and naturalization svs US Customs Transportation security commission Office for domestic security and more. . . Emergency Preparedness and Response directorate Science and technology directorate Information analysis and infrastructure directorate Management and personnel Coast Guard and Secret Service, FEMA became part of Dep' t of Homeland Security CIA, FBI, NSA, DOD remain autonomous DHS Strategies/Goals Protect Nation from dangerous people Borders, immigration laws, travel, immigration svs Protect nation from dangerous goods Nukes, biological, chemical, & other contraband Protect critical infrastructure Strenthen nation's preparedness & emergency response capabilities Strengthen and unify DHS operations & management > governance & performance, intelligence sharing and information gathering, > planning & operation coordination DHS Debate. . . Pro's Has funding and infrastructure to counter terror Provides organization and umbrella of "equality" across US Con's Too big and inefficient Federal actors can not know specifics of areas better than local law enforcement Erodes local & states' rights Urban areas receive most funding and training "Intelligence" National Counter Terrorism Commission (NCTC) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) National Security Agency (NSA) Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) "The most important aspect of any nation's fight against domestic and international terrorism is current and accurate intelligence?" (Celmer1987) NCTC- National Counterterrorism Commission Mission: to reduce the information gulf b/w intelligence & enforcement agencies NCTC serves as the USG's central and shared knowledge bank Pentagon FBI CIA Homeland Security Governmental Agencies & Commissions International agencies Responsibilities Analysis authority only http://www.nctc.gov/ Strengths: Latest technologies Free of "historic baggage" of other agencies Avoids groupthink that could occur if one agency handles all terror cases Challenges: Initial "turf" wars Lack of analysis experience & culture Understaffing Information overload FBI Formed in 1908 Has national criminal and intelligence-gathering jurisdiction Current leaders: Robert Mueller Lead investigative agency in us Has sole jurisdiction of US territory Surveillance jurisdiction over domestic and international terrorism YJ9yWgJ CIA Created in 1947, successor of OSS of WWII National Securities Act Mission The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an independent US Government agency responsible for providing national security intelligence to senior US policymakers Includes covert operations at request US President www.cia.gov Counterterrorism Center Responsibilities: Collect, correlate, evaluate, and disseminate information critical to national security Provide direction for and coordination of the collection of national intelligence OUTSIDE of the US "Performing such other functions and duties related to intelligence affecting the national security as the President or the Director of National Intelligence may direct" National Security Agency Founded: 1981 Leader: Director of National intelligence ****General Keith Alexander Housed in FT. Meade, MD Responsible for: "information assurance" Increased role since 9/11 Cryptography Cyberterror www.nsa.gov Mission To protect U.S. national security systems and to produce foreign signals intelligence information. Act as the National Manager for National Security systems Provide information assurance Defense Intelligence Agency MISSION "Provide timely, objective, and cogent military intelligence to warfighters, defense planners, and defense and national security policy-makers" Accomplish through military and governmental contact Vision: Integration of highly skilled intelligence professionals with leading-edge technology to discover information and create knowledge that provides warning, identifies opportunities, and delivers overwhelming advantage to our warfighters, defense planners, and defense and national security Focus: Foreign military intelligence Leader: ***Ronald L. Burgess Reports to Sec. of Defense and joint chiefs Housed in Pentagon www.dia.mil http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DPT4sDtmt http://www.fbi.gov/aboutus/investigate/terrorism http://www.dni.gov/testimonies/20110210_test https://www.cia.gov/about-cia/cia-visionmission-values/index.html International efforts in Counter Terrorism United Nations Charged with protecting international peace and security and the protection of human rights Security Council passed 3 resolutions in response to 9/11 calling for increased international cooperation to deter and investigate terror groups UN Counterterrorism Committee United Nations Strengths Legitimacy- Only international entity with representation of nearly all the world's people Challenges Consensus- Having such representation Political nature Are terrorist attacks crimes against states, crimes against humanity, or international events Who has primary jurisdiction the state that was attacked or Limits to authority- states resistant to have UN intervention/mandates into their state Member states often fail to provide funding UN Counterterrorism Committee Established in the wake of the 11 September terrorist attacks in the United States. Resolution 1373 (2001), adopted unanimously on 28 September 2001, calls upon Member States to implement a number of measures intended to enhance their legal and institutional ability to counter terrorist activities Criminalize the financing of terrorism Freeze funds related to persons involved in acts of terrorism Deny all forms of financial support for terrorist groups Suppress the provision of safe haven, sustenance or support for terrorists Share information with other governments Cooperate with other governments in the investigation, detection, arrest, extradition and prosecution of those involved in such acts Criminalize active and passive assistance for terrorism in domestic law and bring violators to justice http://www.un.org/en/sc/ctc/ United Nations Strengths Legitimacy- Only international entity with representation of nearly all the world's people Challenges Consensus- Having such representation Political nature Are terrorist attacks crimes against states, crimes against humanity, or international events Who has primary jurisdiction the state that was attacked or Limits to authority- states resistant to have UN intervention/mandates into their state Member states often fail to provide funding Interpol Interpol- International Criminal Police Organization Originally formed in Vienna, Austria in 1923 Currently located in Lyon, France Second largest international entity, second to UN Membership = 188 states Mission: supra-national police organization with criminal enforcement and investigative powers (excluding intervention into political, military, religious, or racial issues) designed to foster cooperation and collaboration through National Central Bureaus (NCBs) 7 Regional bureaus To maintain neutrality, only involved in cases that transcend more than state http://www.interpol.int/default.asp Interpol 1984- Passed the "Violent Crime Commonly Referred to as Terrorism" Act increasing Interpol's international cooperation in policing terrorist activity 1985- Formed the "Public Safety and Terrorism" unit Since 9/11 has Organized the "11 September Task Force" Including "Financial and High Tech Crimes Sub-Directorate" "Interpol Terrorism Watch List" (April, 2002) Issued Red & Blue Notices Interpol-United Nations Security Council Special Notice - Issued for groups and individuals who are targets of UN sanctions against Al Qaeda and the Taliban Created in 2005 by request from the UN Security Council UN via UN Resolution 617 Interpol Passed the "Violent Crime Commonly Referred to as Terrorism" Act increasing Interpol's international cooperation in policing terrorist activity Formed the "Public Safety and Terrorism" unit Since 9/11 has: Organized the "11 September Task Force" "Interpol Terrorism Watch List" (April, 2002) Issued special notices Interpol-United Nations Security Council Special Notice - Issued for groups and individuals who are targets of UN sanctions against Al Qaeda and the Taliban Created in 2005 by request from the UN Security Council UN via UN Resolution 617 Hosted symposiums on counterterrorism Established international guidelines for combating international terrorism Established a Fusion task force to aid in the collection of information and collaboration Other International Counterterrorism Efforts Europol - Trans-European Eurojust primarily in EU Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI)Southern Africa Regional Policy Cooperative Organization (SARPCCO) Project Pacific- Trans-Asian ...
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