History of Islam-S2L1-student

History of Islam-S2L1-student - The History of Islam Back...

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Unformatted text preview: The History of Islam Back to the beginning. . . Geography Back to the beginning. . . Sixth Century Arabia Social Structure Economy Back to the beginning. . . 6th Century Arabia Religions Judaism Christianity Ancestor Worship Animism Polytheism Muhammad ibn Abdullah Who was Muhammad? Butcher Prophet Diplomat Military Commander Philosopher Politician. . . Muhammad ibn Abdullah Founder of Islamic Religion 570/1-632 AD in Mecca Banu Hashim clan Orphaned Muhammad ibn Abdullah Married wealthy widow: Aishah bint Abu Bakr Revelation Cave: Hira, Mount An-Nur Archangel Gabriel appears to him Birth of Islamic Religion Islam means "Submission to God" The holy text of Islam: Qu'ran/Koran One of three "Abrahamic" Religions Foundational philosophies of Islam: There is one all-powerful God w/out images or symbols Muhammad was the final prophet of God Islam is for all, not just the elect Anyone can become Muslim Proselytizing Faith Superiority of individuals is bases solely on piety There is no class, ethnic, or racial distinction in Islam Islam is a way of life, not just religion Five Pillars of Islam 1. Shahadah- Profession of faith* 2. Salat- Prayer 3. Zakan/t- Giving of alms 4. Sawm/Siyam- Fasting 5. Hajj- Pilgrimage to Mecca * Sunni tenets A New Religion Emerges. . . New "unifying" revelation rejected Clans Jews Christians: Forced to flee to Medina after assassination attempt Battle of Badr: 624 AD Establishment of Islam as Religion Battle of Trench Mecca falls & converts to Islam two years later Islam spreads throughout Arabia by 630 AD United tribes/clans of Arabia D'himmi- "People of the book who live in Muslim-dominated territory Muhammad dies in 632 AD Development of Islam Four ages: Righteous Caliphs (632-661) Civil war Division in Islam Early/Classical Islam (661-1258) Koran written Sharia law- Islamic jurisprudence Culture flourished and spread Later Empires (1258-1750) Modern Period (1750 and on) The Divide Who was to succeed Muhammad? Sunni Supported Abu Bakr, friend of Muhammad and military leader Leadership should be given to those who demonstrate leadership potential No formal clergy- scholars & jurists 85-90% of current global Muslim population Shiite Supported Ali ibn Abi Talib, cousin & son-in-law of Muhammad Leadership should be a birthright Imam (clergy): Believe in spiritual leadership inherit Muhammad's revelation/light Controversy: some claim last known descendant of Muhammad was killed at age 4 in 873 AD 10-15% of current global Muslim population Murders, poisons, direct violent conflict for control ensue http://www.islamfortoday.com/shia.htm Golden Age of Islam Mid 8th century- mid 13th century (Sacking of Baghdad) Spread of Islam throughout Middle East & into Asia Synthesized and significantly advanced the knowledge from the Roman, Greek, Byzantine, Chinese, Indian, Mesopotamian, Persian, and African civilizations The Scientific method Algebra Chemistry: distillation (of alcohol), element of arsenic Coffee Concept of restaurant Refined sugar Central heating through floor Concept of hydro power Hair dye & lipstick Many medical products The Crusades 1095-1272 AD 1st Crusade- 1095-1099 Stimulus: Pope Urban II & kidnapping Outcome: Christian victory Jerusalem taken in 1099 The Crusades 2nd Crusade: 1147-1149 Stimulus: Pope Eugene III & Edessa/Odessa Outcome: Islamic victory Moors driven from Spain Edessa not reclaimed Crusades 3rd Crusade: 11891192, also known as the Kings' Crusade Stimulus: Saladin recaptures Jerusalem in 1187 Outcome: Victory for Islam, sort of Crusades 4th Crusade: 1202-1204 Result: Crusader states Resulted in official split b/w Eastern Orthodox and Roman Christianity Children's Crusade: Stimulus: A series of (possibly fictitious or misinterpreted) events in 1212 Children never reached Holy Land to fight Starved, shipwrecked, sold into slavery in Egypt Crusades 5th Crusades: 1217-1221 Result: Muslim victory Al-Kamil put a bounty on every Christian head brought to him Crusades 6th Crusade: 1228-1229 Result: Draw Christians gained control of Jerusalem & other cities Muslims retained control of the Dome of the Rock Crusades 7th Crusade: 1248-1254 Stimulus: Jerusalem Result: Muslim victory Crusades 8th Crusade: 1270-1272 Result: Muslim victory Attempts to regain Holy Land ended Those Christians who remained were executed or sold into slavery A New Foe Mongol Invasion By end of 13th century controlled from Iran to Egypt Mongol Dominance in Islamic Lands Mongol policy: Spread through conquest Mongols converted to Islam Kept Mongol "warrior" persona 14th century: Empire rebuilt Islam spread from Asia proper to modern Hungary Cities rebuilt Civil codes Arts/sciences flourish 15 & 16 Century- Stalemate th th Muslim World 3 Monarchal Empires of Islam: Safavid Empire: Iran (Shiite) Moghul Empire: India (Sunni) Ottoman Empire: Asia minor, Egypt, Hungary, into Austria (Sunni) 15 & 16 Century- Stalemate th th Europe Renaissance (14th-17th centuries) Protestant Reformation (1517) Multiple Wars b/w princes Discovery and exploration of New World & New trade routes Naval dominance Rise of European Power End of The Stalemate Ottoman Empire Caliphate warned of Rising European Power 1645- Caliph was opportunity to "take" Austria Europe Continued to grow in economic and naval power Modernization process begins United the Europeans Thirty Years War (16181648) Religious Political Treaty of Westphalia Ratified in 1648 Was the beginning of the modern state-based system Sovereigns of each state were given equal power Limited the power of the pope Each prince has the power to determine the religion of his own state Christians living in principalities where their denomination was not the established church were guaranteed the right to practice their (Christian) faith Fall of the "Strong Man of Europe" Corruption & greed of Caliphs Infighting for power & territorial control Economic stagnation Repeated attempts to penetrate Western Europe drained resources Colonial Subjection (approx. 2 centuries) Wahhabism Originated in 18th Century Saudi Arabia Founder: Abd-al-Wahhab Saw corruption of Caliphs and regression to pre-Islamic practices and sought to restore/reform Islam Considered everything added to Islam after 3rd century is not legitimate Considered to be an ultra-conservative, puritanical form of Islam Presented foundational teachings of modern "radical" Islam Called for return to original Islam Ibn al-Wahhabi- led jihad to purge Islam from its own corruption Jihad- inner struggle Wahhabism/Salafi Have gained in influence since the 1970's through: Political power of royal family Funding through funding from Saudi oil Funded building mosques & schools internationally Setting the Stage for Modern Islamic Terrorism 1. 2. 3. Zionist Movement Muslim Brotherhood Qutb WW I British Promises To Arabs Arab Revolt Sykes-Pico Agreement To Allies To Jews. . . . Collapse of Ottoman Empire Moving Toward an Israeli State. . . Zionist Movement Founder: Austro-Hungarian journalist, Theodor Herzel Wrote Der Judenstaat Grew into an international, political organization Balfour Declaration, 1917 British government agreed in principle with the concept of establishing a Jewish homeland in Palestine Mass Jewish immigration 11% in 1922, 33 % in 1947 World War II Collapse of Colonial Empires Political boundaries drawn Cold War power struggle Israel . . . Moving Toward an Israeli State. . . Arab league- Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, TransJordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia Alexandra Protocol October 7, 1944 State of Israel Israel declared independence May 14, 1948 W/in hours the US & Soviet Union recognized as sovereign state Arab nations' "immediate" attack "This will be a war of extermination and momentous massacre which will be spoken of like the Mongolian massacres and the Crusades" (Azzam Pasha, Gen. Secretary of the Arab League, 1948). "The representative of the Jewish Agency told us yesterday that they were not the attackers, that the Arabs had begun the fighting. We did not deny this. We told the whole world that we were going to fight" (Jamal Husseini, VP of Arab League, 1948). British Palestinian Mandate Six Days War- 1967 Independence- 1948 Frustration in Muslim World Muslim Brotherhood established 1928 Hasan al-Banna Aid in purification of Muslim religion & state Overt rejection of separation of church & state Fundamentalist view of Islam gained momentum Sayyid Qutb 1906- 1966, Born in Egypt Sunni Teacher in early life Studied in the US 1948-1950 Joined Muslim Brotherhood Imprisoned 1954 after failed assassination attempt on Nasser Began philosophical writings in prison Writings of Sayyid Qutb Prolific writer In the Shadow of the Koran Milestones Social Justice in Islam Philosophical writings had 20th century relevance Focused on questions concerning the division b/w the Soul and the Body Addressed theological and spiritual questions while demonstrating that Islam was self-sufficient/complete Spiritually, socially, morally, judicially, & in governance Modernity is materialistic encroaches on the "values of man" Viewed Islam not as an ideology but as enlightenment & freedom Not nationality, but a community of belief Knowledge of the freedom of Islam is what made the Arabs great Writings of Sayyid Qutb Was critical of: Marxism (Soviet Communism) A lackey of the Jewish (& Christian) conspiracy to destroy Islam Saw Cold War as battle b/w Christianity & Social equality, Neither were of value to Qutb Capitalism Division of church & state in liberal democracies Was a splitting of the soul in two - Schizophrenia Freedom was no freedom "God's existence is not denied, but His domain is restricted to the heavens and His rule of earth is suspended" -Qutb Enemies of Islam West/Christianity Qutb's "issues" with West/Christianity Weak & watered down faith Weak & suffering savior Competition b/w faith & science for pre-eminence Education systems are pragmatic & materialistic Sexual freedom Ambiguous Gender roles Separation of Church & State The divine is everything, or it is not divine Enemies of Islam Communism Atheistic A lackey/tool of Jews (& Christians) to end Islam Writings of Sayyid Qutb Judaism Anti-Jewish sentiment pg. 84 Primary "argument" with Jews was theological rather than political Emphasized scriptures in Koran that portrayed Jews in an negative light De-emphasized the passages in Koran speaking tolerantly or well of Jews Was concerned about the Jewish influence on international events and cultures Believed that Jews were conspiring against Islam "False" Muslims "Moderate" Muslims Those who cooperate or embrace Western philosophies and/or practices Nasser- thought Russia would win cold war & tried to befriend Russians Writings of Sayyid Qutb Saw world returning to pre-Islamic ignorance & idolatry (jahili) Worried "true" Islam was about to be erased from the earth Called for a vanguard to restore message and preeminence of Islam Jihad Start with one state and expand Unite the world under Islam Sayyid Qutb Was released from prison but was arrested again in less than 9 months Charged & convicted with plotting to overthrow government Executed by hanging: August 29, 1966 With 6 other "co-conspirators" Legacy of Sayyid Qutb Became a martyr for Islamic fundamentalists Brother, Muhammad, moved to Saudi Arabia following his release from prison in Egypt Published and promoted Qutb's work as professor Mentor & friend of Osama Bin Laden Osama bin Laden Best known as founder of Al-Qaeda Born in 1957 to wealthy Saudi Family Trained in economics and business administration Raised as Wahhabi Muslim (Sunni) Afghanistan (1979-1989) Beginning of Al-Qaeda Returns to Saudi Arabia and military leader & hero 1990 Invasion of Kuwait -1990 Offer of help refused, US help accepted Viewed non-Muslim as "profaned Muslim soil" Ire turned toward "false" Muslims and West Banished from Saudi Arabia Bin Laden in Sudan Became affiliated with Egyptian Islamic Jihad Failed assassination attempt on Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak- 1995 Expelled from Sudan, returns to Afghanistan Associated with Many attacks in Arab states, loses popular support- 1992-2000 How to "Save" AlQaeda AlQaeda in trouble Funding low Morale low Internal rivalries Control/power w/in AlQaeda What targets & where Had lost popular support for terrorist tactics The remedy: "The blow against the Unites States was meant to put an end to the internal rivalries, which are manifest in vitriolic memos between Kabul and cells abroad. . .Its aim was to tempt the powers to strike back in a way that would create sympathy for the terrorists" (Cullison, 2005, 96). Afghanistan Initial relations b/w Taliban & AlQaeda "cool" Taliban- Sunni Islamist political movement comprised primarily of members of the Pashtun Tribes of Afghanistan US attack on Khost, Afghanistan in retaliation for AlQaeda African embassy bombing- 1998 changed nature of their relationship Change in Mullah Omar's position prompted bin Laden to call him "Islam's new Caliph" By 2001, bin Laden and advisor to Omar In the meantime. . . . Preparations for 9/11 Idea for using aircraft as "bombs" is credited to Khalid Sheikh Mohammad Hamburg Cell: Muhammad Atta, leader (Egyptian) Ramzi Binalshibh Marwan al-Shehhi Ziad Jarrah 9/11 19 Hijackers: 1 Egyptians 15 Saudi Arabians 1 Lebanese 2 United Emirates American Airlines Flight 11- Twin Towers 1 Pilot: Muhammad Atta United Airlines Flight 175- Twin Towers 2 Pilot: Marwan Al-Shehhi United Airlines Flight 77- Pentagon Pilot: Hani Hanjour United Airlines Flight 93- Pennsylvania Pilot: Ziad Samir Jarrah White House or House of Representatives believed to be the targets AlQaeda Perspective on 9/11 Victories: $1 trillion in damage 2000 economic brains lost Stock market dropped Consumer spending decreased Dollar dropped in value Airlines "crippled" "the American globalization system, which was going to spoil the world is gone. . ." (Cullison, 2006, 112) Questions: "Why are the Americans fighting a battle on behalf of the Jews? Why do they sacrifice their sons and interests for them?" (bin Laden, 2001, [113]) AlQaeda strategy: The question: What are the recurring themes in these passages? What was the reason for 9/11? International Reaction to 9/11 Universally denounced, even in Muslim states AlQaeda & Bin Laden denounces as archaic extremists Invasion of Afghanistan received broad support ...
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