Unformatted text preview: ; AlQaeda Means: "The Base"- Used for a training camp to train for fighting against Russians, name stuck Originated: 1988 Leader: Osama bin Laden "State": Afghanistan, global Primary issues: anti-Western, "Restore" Puritanical Islam Break-down of Western influence in Arab states Institution of a new, pan-Islamic Caliphate Of Note: The Killing of innocents and/or civilians is religiously justified in Jihad MO: Suicide attacks and simultaneous bombings Dabate: A cohesive organization or loose (at best) coalition using name Terrorist Organizations
Middle East Over 100 Islamic Terrorist Organizations Current US list: http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/other/des/123085.htm By State: http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/terrorist-groups.cfm Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood* Originated: 1928 Original Leader: Hassan al-Banna Current Leader: Muhammad Badie (2010) "State": Egypt (outlawed), international network Primary Issues: Return to traditional Islam, mostly political Social contributions: Hostpitals, schools, business enterprises Official position: Against terrorism Funding: contributions from its members, who are required to allocate a portion of their income to the movement www.ikhwanweb.com www.islamdenouncesterrorism.com * Has changed over time El Fatah* Originated: 1959 Original Leader: Yasser Arafat (1929-2004) Current Leader: Mahmoud Attas (2004) "State": Jordan, Lebanon, Tunisia, Gaza Primary Issues: Anti-Israeli Political leanings: leftist, socialist "Sponsored" by Soviet Russia Claims to fame: 1965: failed attack on Israeli National Water Carrier from Jordan River 1972: Sponsored Black September http://www.fateh.ps/ Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) Originated: 1964 as Guerilla organization Original Leader: Yasser Arafat Leader: Abu Abbas State: West Bank, Gaza , Lebanon/Syria, West Bank Primary motivation: Palestinian State Of note: 1993: Oslo Accords- Recognized state of Israel A loosely controlled org. w/ 11 affiliated organizations, most w/ leftist leanings Funding: Reportedly the wealthiest terrorist organization Donations, extortion, payoffs, arms dealing, drug trafficking, money laundering, fraud Hamas Originated: 1987 Current Leader: Khalid Mish'al (1996-pres.) Religious Affiliation: Sunni Islam "State": Gaza & West Bank Primary Motivation: Anti-Israeli, Palestinian State Three aspects: Political, social, military Funding: Iran , individuals in Saudi Arabia MO: Rocket attacks & suicide bombing* http://qassam.ps/index.html Cave of Patriarchs Massacre When: February 25, 1994 Who: Baruch Goldstein Where: Cave of Patriarchs, Hebron What: opened fire on Muslins in prayer Grave site now a pilgrimage destination Hezbollah Originated: 1982 Leader: Hassan Nasrallah "State": Lebanon & Syria, international cells Religious affiliation: Shia Islam Primary Issues: Anti-colonial, Puritanical Islam, Anti-Israeli, now political as well Development: Began as small militia over Golan Heights Taif Agreement 1990s: Identity Crisis Social services hospitals, news services, educational facilities, the Martyr's institute, infrastructure, garbage collection, water supplies, Nikah al-Mut'ah Political organization Hezbollah & Amal are the two major parties that represent Shia 14/128 Parliamentary seats Path to 2011: 2005: Rafiq Hirari- assassination Son: Saad Hirari 2008: Recent trouble began w/ gov't efforts to shut down telecommunications Compromise: veto power 11/30 Cabinet seats Oct. 2010 held government take over exercises . October 2010: Noble Energy found natural gas reserves w/in Northern Isreali territory: January 2011: Collapse Led by Hezbollah Temporary PM: Najib Mikati MO: Suicide bombings, assassinations, ransom of internationals Funding: Iran & Syria, black market US estimates that Iran has been giving Hezbollah about US $60100 million per year in financial assistance Notorious for: 1983: Beruit US Embassy bombings http://almashriq.hiof.no/lebanon/300/320/324/324.2/hizballah/ Palestinian Liberation Front (PLF) Originated: 1961 Original Leader: Muhammad Abbas (Abu Abbas/ Zaydan) 2003: captured 2004: died in captivitiy Current Leader: Dr. Wasal Abu Yousef "State": Currently popular in Lebanese refugee camps, in Iraq Primary Issues: Palestinian State Notable notorious for: Achille Lauro, 1985 Haganah Means: "The Defense" Established: 1920-1948 Irgun split off in 1931 Lord Moyne assissination, Hag. Assis. In capture of Irgun members Primary Issues: Anti- British rule, immigration Received funding, munitions, political, and diplomatic support from many Western states Gush Emunim Underground Established: 1979 -1984 Religious affiliation: Orthodox Judiasm Primary Motivation: Defense of Israel, development of Jewish settlements in West Bank Known for: attacks against settlements in West Bank Bombed Arab-owned businesses Car bombings of Arab mayors Planned destruction of the Dome of the Rock Terror Against (Neged) Terror (TNT) Also known as Kach or Kahane Established: 1974: Leader Rabbi Meir Kahane (1932-1990) 1990: Killed in NY Religious affiliation: Orthodox Judaism Primary Motivation: Defense of Israeli citizens Notorious for: Targeted Christian and Muslim citizens & holy sites numerous beatings and bombings and several murders of Arabs, beginning in 1975 Cave of Patriarchs Massacre Jewish Defense League Established: 1968 Founding Leader: Rabbi Meir Kahane Current leader: Meir (Marvin) Weinstein (Halevi) State: US, Los Angeles Primary issue: Protect Jews from anti-Semitism Noted for: Bombing "enemies of the Jewish People" Arab & Soviet properties and businesses in US Denounced by many Jewish organizations http://www.jdl.org/ State Sponsorship of (Islamic) Terrorism 1979: State Department: based on exports, arms export control, and foreign aid Cuba (1982)- Communist since 1959 Openly supported leftist revolutionaries in Latin America, provided munitions & training W/ fall of USSR, Castro ended his support Never proven to sponsor terror, put on list b/c of hostile relations, proximity, potential security risk they present Best charge that can be leveled against Cuba is that they do not support war on terror, but do not do anything to stop it, has harbored fugitives in past no terrorists CIA, 2003: "We have no credible evidence ... that the Cuban government has engaged, in or directly supported international terrorist operations in the past decade Iran (1984) Foremost state to sponsor terrorism- Hezbhollah & Hamas to a lesser extent Arms, training, funding, intelligence through the Iranian Revolutionary Guard IRG: is a branch of Iran's military, founded after the Iranian revolution to prevent internal dissident and military uprisings 11-member clerical council Has taken an ever more assertive role in virtually every aspect of Iranian society. Its expanded social, political, military, and economic role under president Ahmadinejad's administration -- especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protests -- has led many analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed even that of the role of the Imam. Nukes 1--2 years away from warhead capacity Known to be hostile to existence of Israel Emergent leader in region Sharing nukes w/ other states and/or belligerents Iraq (1979, -1982, 1990, -200) Hussein: Housing for headquarters, operating bases, training camps, and funding to terrorist groups fighting the governments of neighboring Turkey and Iran, as well as to hard-line Palestinian groups. Stated intent to develop WMD's beyond what already had, which may have been shared w/ terror grps Used mustard gas & Sarin against Iranians in 1980's Iran-Iraqi war Connection w/ 9/11: While the rest of the Arab world renounced, Iraq silent ABSOLUTELY no conclusive evidence of Iraqi complicity AlQaeda ties unlikely: Bin Laden- Sunni, Hussein- Shiite & quite secular During the 1991 Gulf War, Saddam commissioned several failed terrorist attacks on U.S. facilities Libya (1979, -2006) Claimed responsibility for 1988 Pan Am flight 103 Agreed to compensate families of 270 victims Agreed to cease WMD manufacture Agreed to work w/ US & international community to counter terrorism North Korea (1988, -2008) 1983 assassination attempt on South Korean president (17 souls, bomb expl. Too early) Accused of 1987 bombing of Korean Air Flight 858 (115 souls- female Kim Hyon Hui) Sold missiles and technology to Syria & Lybia 1994 Non-nuclear proliferation treaty 2003: withdrew citing failure of US to remove from terror list Now believed to have conducted 2 successful tests (plutonium) Believed to have 6-8 nuclear warheads Sanctions NOT lifted, "regular relations" NOT resumed, NK NOT removed from terror list Why US failed to remove from list in Suspicions about covert nuke weapons facilities 2000: Accused of selling small munitions to minor Philippines separatist faction Have harbored known 4 Japanese terrorists from the League-Red Army Faction since 1970's responsible for the Yodogo Incident & kidnapping of Japanese to NK Was removed from list Oct 2008 Sudan (1993) Have actively aided & harbored lower-level Al-Qaeda & Hamas operatives as recently as 2009 Many in Sudanese gov't consider Hamas as freedom fighters Have limited Hamas activities to fundraising in Sudan Have resisted using land as training in recent history Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), Congo, Uganda: Human Rights abuses Syria (1979) Is officially opposed to international terrorism, but adamantly separates "national liberation movements" Has provided haven, diplomatic & political support for Hamas, provided security for leaders , hosted public events, allowed access to transportation for munitions from Iran to Hamas in Lebanon Was a primary route for internat. Fighters to enter Iraq, #'s have dropped significantly since 2007 70% of business transactions are through "hawala" smuggling and trade-based money laundering to fund terrorist endeavors, believed to rival state's economy November, 2010 a munitions Israeli naval commandos intercepted a large cache of arms on November 3 on its way from Iran to Hizballah by way of the Syrian port of Latakia. The arms shipment, which was found amidst civilian cargo on the Antiguan-flagged ship over 500 tons of munitions Saudi Arabia ?? Not on terror list Prince Abdullah soundly criticized for more lenient, pro-western policies King Abdullah bin Abdul-Aziz: succeeded brother in 2005, Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud born 1928 is the crown prince. He has been mired with corruption accusations (nicknamed "Sultan of Thieves") Many highest level ministers chairs of "charity organizations that have been accused of funneling money to terrorist orgs Muslim Brotherhood: Egypt, Sudan, Jordan, and Syria Madrassah schools Muslim World League International Islamic Relief Organization World Assembly of Muslim Youth Charitable Foundations of al-Haramain Yemen (1979, - 1990) Cold War spill over into terrorism Civil war estab. Marxist S. Yemen in 1967 Had ties w/ China, Cuba, and "radical Palestinians" Provided sanctuary, material support, and money laundering for terrorist radical Muslim & leftist orgs. Until united w/ North Yemen, South Yemen toped US's terrorist state list Formerly Soviet Communist state Civil war in 1986 Ties w/ Japan's Red Army and West Germany's BaaderMeinhof Gang Removed when North & South Yemen united in 1990 Now considered key ally against terrorism Money laundering is generally regarded as the practice of engaging in financial transactions to conceal the identity, source, and/or destination of illegally gained money by which the proceeds of crime are converted into assets which appear to have a legitimate origin. In the United Kingdom the statutory definition is wider. It is common to refer to money legally obtained as "clean", and money illegally obtained as "dirty". Common traits of governments that sponsor terror Repressive governments Ambitious political and/or religious goals that transend borders Tendency to blame outside enemies for internal/domestic problems State Sponsorship of Terrorism Types of state support Propaganda Iran broadcasting information encouraging the overthrow of "un-Islamic" regimes/ruler States such as Syria would promote and restrain organizations depending on political expediency Some Arab states provided support to terrorist organizations to "keep them off their backs" Iran hosted training through the Revolutionary Guard Afghanistan hosted AlQaeda training camps Iraq provided training to various terrorist organizations Libya provided training to Palestinian groups in 1970's-80's Lebanon & Syria hosted training camps for Palestinian organizations Training camps Financial support Islamic Revolutionary Council established funds under Khomeini with the goal of exporting the Iranian Revolution Through private organizations/foundations/charities or individual Yemen: money laundering Allowing criminal activity Drug trafficking, armed robberies, money laundering Weapons/military training Diplomatic support Safe havens Iranian, Syrian, & Russian weapons and planes have been provided to Islamic revolutionaries and states opposing Israel & the West Iran used diplomatic channels to "smooth" Hezbollah relations with Syria Refusal to extradite international terrorists Sudan Osama bin Laden Carlos "The Jackal" Ramirez Osama bin Laden Harbored several Palestinian organizations Afghanistan Syria & Lebanon Sponsoring of specific groups Offering sanction or verbal support of specific groups State Sponsorship of Terrorism Involuntary Sponsorship Failed states- no central government Yemen USS Cole, 2000 Failing states Brown areas- central government has control of some but not all areas of state Borders of Argentina, Brazil, & Paraguay Lybia Do Democracies Aid Terrorists? Liberal democracies Political freedom "Free & Open" elections Political dissent Religious freedom Open borders Freedom of movement Heterogeneous population "E Pluribus Unum" Mixing Pot or Salad Bowl? ...
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- Spring '11
- Hamas, primary issues