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Unformatted text preview: Studies in "Types" of Terrorism North American Terrorism * Graphic content in today's lectures Klu Klux Klan Also known as "The Klan" Originated: 1865 First Grand Imperial Wizard: Nathan Bedford forest Range of influence: National Primary Motives*: Classifed as a hate group Extreme Far Right White Supremacy Anti-immigration Anti-Catholic Anti-Communist Group evolved in three stages/waves Website: http://www.kkk.com/ Distinctive attributes: costumes: Most distinctive attribute of KKK "Modern" costume believed to have adopted from "The Birth of a Nation" Some groups use all white, others use color Purple --- Grand Imperial Dragon/Wizard Green --- Grand Dragon (of the realm Reddish-purple --- Great Black --- Knighthawk (security) Red --- Kleagle crosswheel design Symbols crosswheel design "the circle of unity, motion, and also the ancient Aryan symbol of the sun or light. Through the centuries no symbol has come to represent the totality of the White race better than the crosswheel. The traditional red, white, and black Klan symbol known as the "Blood Drop" is also a form of the original" Burning Cross: Began in 2nd wave The fiery cross is used as a Klan symbol representing the ideals of Christian civilization. In no way does it represent a desecration of the cross, for it actually represents the lighting of the cross; that is, the truth and the light of our sacred doctrine: The blazing spirit of Western, Christian civilization. It must also be said that the Fiery Cross was used in Scottish history as a signal of opposition to tyranny and obedience to God, our nation, our race and our movement. http://www.knightskkk.com/KKKhistory.html Wave 1: 1865-1870 Motive: Resist outcomes of Civil War Thirteenth Amendment, KKK formally organized by 12/24/1865 Goal: Control Reconstruction through maintaining white supremacy MO: Targets: Blacks White Republicans (sympathetic to 13th Amendment) White Carpetbaggers How Night Lynching Arson (churches & businesses) Rape Government "Intervention": Force Acts Klan Act Rise of "paramilitary" orgs Red Shirts,- amputated Knights of the White Camellia Goals: To suppress black and black-sympathy vote Wave 2 1915-1944: "Founder": William J. Simmons Used membership in 12 fraternities to initiate growth Importance of fraternities w/out SSI or life insurance Where: Stone Mountain, Georgia The Stimuli: Birth of a Nation Also called, The Clansman" Stimulus continued. . . The Murder of Mary Phagan Mary Phagan, 12 years old (1900-1913) Leo Frank Trial became political show: Rich, Yankee, Jew Was found guilty, sentenced to death, sentence commuted to life The Knights of Mary Phagan Stimuli continued. . . Immigration & migration Migration of black workers to urban areas in north KKK Membership was strongest in urban centersnorth & south Irish wave began in 1845 w/ potato famine, poor economic recovery & grew "Interesting" facts of second wave: Meaning/goals of clan changed At height of second wave membership = 4 -5 million 40% of the male adult population in the some regions 1920s: KKK members enjoyed considerable political influence Other members acted openly w/ impunity Decline of second wave Kidnapping, torture, Rape & poisioning murder of white school teacher, by Grand Dragon of Indiana and popular presidential hopeful, among other "vigilante" tactics marginalized support Corruption led to loss of support led to IRS seizure of properties Wave 3 1950's to current day Stimulus: Economic improvement of Southern blacks Red Scare McCarthyism Brown V. Board of education MO: Arson, murder There were 588 acts of violence perpetrated against black Americans between 1950 and 1971 No clear national momentum Some still operate locally with impunity 110 local groups in 2001 2008-2010: believed to have 6000-8000 active members Modern membership has been decreasing except for the following: Passing of Brown v. Board of education by Supreme Court, 1954, Election of John F. Kennedy, 1963 Hate Crime legislation- began in early 1990s, gained momentum w/ murder of James Byrd. Jr. 113,000 hate crimes since 1991 55% were motivated by racial bias 17% by religious bias 14% sexual orientation bias 14% ethnicity bias 1% disability bias 9/11 Election of Barak Obama Christian Identity Movement Christian Identity Movement Origins Loosely affiliated churches with radicalized Christian philosophies Forty-Seven Identifications of the British Nation With Lost Israel, Edward Hine, 1871 Teachings Include: Eurocentric interpretation of Christianity British citizens are the lost tribes of Israel Non-Caucasians have no souls Whites seed of Adam, Non-whites seed of serpent Christian Identity Movement Founded: 1970 to present Founder: Richard Butler Motivation: White supremacists, Neo-Nazi Range of influence: National ? Split into three factions after Butler's death in 2004 Aryan Nation: Church of Jesus Christ-Christian (there are MANY other churches w/ affiliation) Holy Order of Phinehas Priesthood Christian Identity Movement The Order Considered by some to be terrorist arm of the Aryan Nation 1983-4 Leader: Gordon Kahl Best known for: Murder of radio talk show host, Alan Berg Bank Robberies Bombings of theatre & synagogue Counterfeiting Goal: White supremacy & Purity "We must secure the existence of our people and a future for white children" Christian Identity Movement Other affiliated organizations include: Aryan Nation Aryan Nation Revival White Aryan Resistance (WAR) Skinheads National Alliance Zionist Occupation Government (ZOG) Davidian Seventh Day Adventists (?) Aryan Nation Founded: 1970s based in Idaho Founding Leader: Richard Butler Motivation: White supremacy & purity "Aryan Nations no longer promotes any one religion or belief. We are a Worldwide Pan-Aryan National-Socialist organization that is open to ALL White men and women from around the world unaffected by imaginary lines, national heredity, language or borders" Notorious for: Ruby Ridge The Lone Wolf (?) Timothy McVeigh (1968-2001) AKA: Tim Tuttle, Darrel Bridges, Robert Kling Notorious for: Bombing Alfred P. Murrah Building , Oklahoma City, 1995 Most lethal terrorist attack led by American-born on US soil 168 killed including 19 children Motive Revenge for killing of Ruby Ridge (1992) & Branch Davidians (1993) Hoped to inspire revolt against "tyrannical" federal government as in The Turner Diaries To change US foreign Policy Lone wolf or Scapegoat? Tips by several that he had been communicating w/ Aryan members One tip claimed that he had received instruction and fundng form Iraqi operatives that he met while in Iraq The truck rental -- $250. The fertilizer was about... it was either $250 or $500. The nitro methane was the big cost. It was like $1,500. Actually, lemme see, 900, 2,700,... we're talking $3,500 there... Lets round it up. I just gave you the major expenses, so go to like five grand... what's five grand?" --Timothy McVeigh, on the cost of the preparations Claimed to the end that he worked alone Left-Leaning American Terror Groups Black Panthers Black Panthers Originated: 1966 1982. . . Original leaders: Bobby Seale & Huey P. Newton Goal: Protection of black community from police brutality Range of Influence: California & large cities Identified as: Leftist/ neo-Marxist Membership: Peaked at 10K in 1969 "Black Power" - range of political goals: Defense against racial oppression Establishment of separate social institutions Self-sufficient economy http://www.blackpanther.org/ Were the panthers terrorists? Never saw themselves as terrorists, only defenders of black rights Evidence of governmental provocation Attracted young African American men with "criminal elements" Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) The Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) Founded: 1972- 1975 Leader: Donald DeFreeze, a.k.a. "General Field Marshal Cinque", died in police shootout May 17, 1974 (aged 30) Range of influence: California Goal: Start a leftist revolution Champions of black causes Methods: Murder Bank robbery Kidnapping The Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) Kidnapped Patty Hearst Granddaughter of Media tycoon Demanded: Release of two men serving life sentences for murder establishment of free food program Received: $4 million in food Outcome Hearst joined group Later claimed brainwashing Stockholm Syndrome ...
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This note was uploaded on 07/02/2011 for the course POLI 391T taught by Professor Beaudoin during the Spring '11 term at South Carolina.
- Spring '11