Unformatted text preview: CYBERTERROR & THE FUTURE OF TERRORISM Double-edged Sword of Technology Advances in technology have allowed for: Increased longevity, standards of living, economic opportunities, access to information and education, security, communication, travel, . .. Realization of opportunities to apply non-weapon technologies to destructive ends Hard targets: any militarily significant structure that has been fortified with layers of concrete, steel, earth, etc., for protection against the blast effects of conventional and nuclear weapons Soft targets: 1. a person or thing that is relatively unprotected or vulnerable, especially to military or terrorist attack 2. a term used to describe any computers, networks, or entire domains with exploitable vulnerabilities Modern Dependency of Technology Soft targets (continued) Modern society is a complex system of nodes (sectors) and networks Stability of networks depends on redundancy of node's functions & ability to off-load damaged node's functions to other nodes Predictability of capitalist models First rule of modern terrorists: "Find the critical non-redundant part of the system & sabotage" (Winner) Soft Targets & Terrorism Soft targets include: Economic Urban centers Transportation Utility Food As the number and complexity of the nodes increase, so does the interdependence Small interruptions in one node can have an impact on all other nodes as well Reducing the soft target risk Decentralization Move away from "just in time" production Implement economic "circuit breakers" Watch for communication patterns Is There a "real" threat? US officials believe Iran, North Korea, Russia, and China have engaged in internet "warfare" against US Cyberterror- the use of the internet to wage digital attacks The Internet: Today's laptop is roughly equivalent to the computational power of the entire US Defense Department in the 1960s "Most experts agree that the internet is not just a tool of terrorist organizations, but is central to their operations" In 2005, there were 4,300 terror-related websites The Internet can provide: Organization Recruiting Promote ideology Fundraising Communication How Terrorists Use the Internet "Today all other means of communication, print and broadcasting included, pale in comparison to the opportunities that the Internet offers terrorists and hatemongers." (Nacos, 2010, 271) Proliferation of Terror Websites "Hate" websites Stormfront www.stormfront.org White supremacist, neoNazi site How they thrive autonomously Described as Internet's first hate website Outlawed in Germany & France Attempts to shutdown terrorist sites can be thwarted by:
Renaming of site Password protection of sites Open sites abroad Stop short of calling for violence David Duke Proliferation of Cyberterror Becoming "parasites" on other sites Hide activity within sites Xrated & pornographic sites Sport sites Chat rooms of various types Use of "legitimate" sites Selling merchandise on "legitimate" sales sites Social networks Proliferation via Recruitment & Indoctrination
) Blogs, dating sites Sites specifically for children Young children Interactive games "Escape of the Oslo Criminals Assassination of Clinton, Barak, & Arafat "Barakula" Send the "demented demonic beast" to the abyss Music Prussian Blue Lynx & Lamb Gaeda The Path We Choose Blond Hair Blue Eyes Recruitment & Indoctrination Teens Discussion boards "Inflammatory" Postings "White people are taught in school to be ashamed of their heritage. Teachers cram as many politically correct ideas as they can into your head in 180 days. All the great white accomplishments throughout history are diminished. Therefore, I think that now is the time that all the white people across the globe should rise above the lies, and be proud of who we are. To take back our freedom and win for all to see our heritage in its greatest glory." www.kids.stormwatch.org Question: Does the existence of hate speech on the internet constitute cyberterrorism? Recruitment & Indoctrination Dangers/strengths specific to internet recruitment
Cost effective They are unknown cogs Motives unknown Difficult to identify Cyberterror Crashing server- a condition where a computer program (application or operating system) stops performing its expected function and stops responding to other parts of the computer system Can be accomplished by Hacking into site and deleting/altering critical files Creating loops Release a virus Denial of Service attack (DOS)- Overwhelming site with hits "phishing"- create legitimate-looking emails from "friends" & banks tricking people to disclose bank and access information Damage Loss of productivity Loss of income Loss of data Potential loss of software Financial fraud a major source of terror funding Malicious code- auto-executable, invasive computer coding/programs which cannot be blocked by anti-virus software alone. Types of Malicious code: Access violation Denial of service Malicious code hides in: Emails Websites Downloadable files Push content (ads on websites) Viruses- invasive computer coding/programs, which require a user to execute a program in order to cause damage Parasite code- New trend malicious code that is not readily detectable inflicting "damage' over time Parasite attacks Examples Senobite.com fan site for Clive Barker Alneda.com site known to be proAl Qaeda Hidden messages from Bin Laden to followers Azzam.com site known to promote proIslamic ideologies Post 9/11 examination found site was use for communication and inspiration b/w operatives & leadership Was found to contain suggestions on cyber targets. . . Institutions specifically mentioned or suggested as targets: Center for Disease Control & Prevention FedWire Federal Reserve moneymoving system Internet facilities CIA FBI MI5 UK military intelligence agency Mossad Israeli national intelligence agency NASA Civilian police forces National Guard NSA National Security Agency Cyptography Kryptos (Greek) "hidden secret" Cryptanalysis the study of methods used for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information Encryption the conversion of information from readable state to apparent nonsense (cyphpertext) Graphin writing Cyptography Code- words that have specific meaning that replace plaintext Class reunion = coordinated terror attack Having breakfast w/ Charlie at 10= terror attack at 10 Key- Information that is necessary for the transformation of plaintext or cyphertext during decryption ISP "key" signatures that automatically attaches Algorithms- a set of instructions to computers Kerckhoff's Principle a cryptosystem should be secure even if everything about the system, except the key, is public knowledge History of Cryptography
AlKindi 9th century Arab philosopher Wrote A Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages, the first known treatise on cryptography Cryptography Earliest attempts of information security: Tatooing slaves heads Types of cryptography- Symmetric Scytale (baton) cipher Used by ancient Greeks to transfer military strategy or Transposition/substitution Caesar/simple substitution ciphers rearranging of order of letters high illiteracy rates, simple Polyalphabetic cipher cipher based on substitution (introducted by Leon Battista Alberti in 15th centry is basis for modern techniques Vigenre cipher Blaise de Vigenre, 1553 Literal letterforletter substitution Tabula recta/Vigenere Square Rotocypher machines Use polyalphabetic substitution Enigma used in WWII by Germans Colossus/Sigaba allied cryptograph http://www.otr.com/ciphers.shtml Asymmetric cryptography
Modern cryptography intersects mathematics, computer sciences, and engineering skills Communitive or multikey encryption Key used to encrypt message, not same as to decrypt Uses logarithmic & mathematical encryption rather than substitution Brute attack- involves systematically checking all possible keys until the correct key is found
# bytes in key # permutations
8 Brute force time for a device checking 256 permutations per second 0 milliseconds 8 Cyptography Cryptography software Embedding Software Embedded messages in sites SwiftMailer send attachments that will evade filters of "webbased email systems such as Hotmail and Yahoo" Crypto123 Allows encryption and decryption of texts and bitmaps (picture) using passwords
Managers of sites often are unaware that their site is being used Password cracking software Internet & communication In 2009 Norton Securities reported 3.2 billion attempted & successful cyber attacks "Crimeware" toolkits "Make master hackers out of average Joes" NeoSploit IcePack WebAttacker MPack WebAttacker2 MultiExploit Zeus Discussion What is your assessment of the "cyberthreat" Who should pay for cybersecurity?
Privately owned businesses? Government? The "Second Generation" Terrorist Hamid Hayat: 2006, second generation Pakistani-American found guilty
of planning a terrorist attack on US soil Iyman Faris: 2005, American born of Kashmir heritage found guilty of providing material support in plotting to blow up Brooklyn Bridge .Marwan Othman el-Hindi: 2003, FBI spy that pled guilty providing information to al-Qaeda & plotting to blow up Brooklyn Bridge Uzair Paracha: 2005, Pakistani American convicted of conspiracy using multiple aliases to provide material support to al-Qaeda Junaid Barbar: 2006, Pakistani American pleaded guilty to five counts of providing, and conspiring to provide, money and supplies to Al Qaeda Ali al-Timimi: 2005, second generation Iranian-American convicted on ten counts aiding AlQaeda including solicitations to engage in war against US (PhD in biology) Jose Padilla: 2007, US citizen found guilty of conspiracy, and funding & supporting overseas terrorism Colleen LaRose, 2010 awaiting trial on providing material support to terrorist & conspiracy to kill foreign nationals Charges: 1) conspiracy to provide material support to terrorists 2) conspiracy to kill a person in a foreign country 3) making false statements to the FBI 4) attempted identity theft Awaiting trial (Pennsylvania) Pled not guilty March 18, 2010; awaiting further discovery and/or plea agreement Status: . Melting Pot vs. Salad Bowl Melting pot- Concept originated in 1870 as a metaphor for a heterogeneous society becoming more homogeneous, the different elements "melting together" into a harmonious whole with a common culture Salad bowl- also known as multiculturalism or cultural mosaic, is a metaphor to describe an immigrant society in which distinct cultural heritages and customs are preserved/maintained rather than homogenized 2 Generation Frustration
nd Land of opportunity? For whom?
Came for the "better life" where is it? Legal & illegal immigration Educational opportunity Occupational opportunity Affluence While rates of those living < poverty are decreasing, income disparity is increasing Is this a "fair" claim?
"If politics and economics are the explanation for terrorism, why is it that those who are stakeholders in affluent Western democracies feel involved in political struggles taking place on the other side of the planet?. . . [T]here are fewer obstacles faced by Muslims today than have been peacefully overcome by Asian, Jewish, Irish, Italian, Mexican, Native, and African Americans who have suffered most in the long and continuing struggle to broaden this country's promise of dignity and prosperity" (Mohamed, 2007, 119-120) ...
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- Spring '11
- Cryptography, malicious code, soft targets, sites Open sites, sites Sport sites, material support