shervette lecture 3 History fall08

shervette lecture 3 History fall08 - CHAPT 2 HISTORY OF...

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CHAPT 2 HISTORY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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History of Oceanography History of Oceanography Three Periods in Oceanographic History: 1. Eras of Discovery and Navigation a. Prehistoric b. Ancient Greeks and Romans c. Middle Ages 2. Age of Discovery - a. Natural History b. Other Scientific Endeavors 3. Modern Oceanography a. Technological Advances b. Remote Sensing Applications The study of the oceans began slowly, more for survival, economic and political reasons than scientific
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Prehistoric Oceanography Prehistoric Oceanography Paleolithic humans developed barbed spears and harpoons Neolithic humans used bone fishhooks and nets Copper fishhooks appeared around 5000 BC Hunter-gatherers along the seashore and shallow waters Important event: Thag discovers that wood floats and rocks sink Sailing vessels in Egypt as far back as 4000 BC Phoenicians trading across the Mediterranean Sea as early as 1500 BC
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Greek Trading Ship ca. 500 BC Ancient Period Ancient Period Distance = 491 mi Greeks thought Thalassa (Mediterranean Sea) was surrounded by land, which in turn was surrounded by a great encircling river called Oceanus. Eratosthenes (Egyptian, 230 BC), using principles you learned in geometry , made first known calculation of Earth’s circumference: 24,550 mi, which is close to the actual circumference of 25,020 mi. Strabo (Roman, 25 BC) observed volcanic activity and concluded that land periodically sank and rose, causing the ocean to cover land and then recede again. Ptolemy (150 AD) produced first World Atlas. Major flaw was that He estimated earth’s circumference at 29,000 km. This led Columbus to believe he had reached Asia (~1000 years later)!
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Ancestors of Melanesians, Micronesians, and Polynesians spread from southeast Asia to New Guinea and Philippines about 20,000 years ago Mid-Pacific Islands have been colonized for about 2,500 years Hawaii colonized around 450 - 600 AD These islanders are examples of how the application of knowledge of the oceans and marine science was used to colonize and commute long distances between a vast number of widely separated islands, with no visible reference points on the water Voyages Of The Oceanian Peoples Voyages Of The Oceanian Peoples “Red Arrows” indicate the direction and order of settlement. Micronesians used stick charts showing oceanic wave refraction patterns to help them navigate to small atolls over great distances
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Middle Ages Middle Ages After Ptolemy, intellectual and scientific thought declined for about 1000 years (the Dark Ages) Shipbuilding skills and techniques improved Exploration by Vikings (mostly unrecorded) Norsemen colonized Iceland and Greenland by 900 AD Were the first Europeans to reach North America in 985. Chinese navigators became more skilled and vessels became larger and more
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This note was uploaded on 07/02/2011 for the course MSCI 210 taught by Professor ? during the Spring '08 term at South Carolina.

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shervette lecture 3 History fall08 - CHAPT 2 HISTORY OF...

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