Crystal_Chemistry1 - Crystal Chemistry Mineral .defined,...

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Crystal Chemistry • Mineral …defined, but generally not fixed, composition… - a review of basic chemistry • Chemical elements: - protons, neutrons (nucleus), electrons Nuclear chemistry: - atomic number (Z) = number of protons - specific for particularly elements (periodic table) - neutrons 2245 protons, differences create isotopes - Atomic weight = sum of protons and neutrons - written as superscript in front of element symbol Example: Potassium (Z = 19) - 40 K has 21 neutrons - 39 K has 20 neutrons Electrons • uncharged atoms, electrons = protons • orbit nucleus in systematic way - organized according to energy levels - energy depends on quantum number (n, l, m l , m s ) - quantum number unique for each element 1
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• l refers to shape of region where electron likely to be found (similar to subshell s, p, d, f) • m l and m s have to do with orbitals within subshells and spin of electrons -important of magnetic properties • Specific energy corresponds to electron quantum number • Energy of different subshells overlap • Electrons fill subshells systematically in order of energy level • Configuration of electrons: - core : all orbital position of any individual shell filled with electrons - valence: electrons in shells that are not completely filled Formation of Ions Ions excess of deficiency of electrons relative to protons Anions – net negative charge Cations – net positive charge Valence or Oxidation state is the value of the charge on an ion. Configuration of valence electron controls
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This note was uploaded on 07/06/2011 for the course GLY 5245 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at University of Florida.

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Crystal_Chemistry1 - Crystal Chemistry Mineral .defined,...

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