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Crystal_Growth_and _Phase_Diagrams

Crystal_Growth_and _Phase_Diagrams - Crystal Growth"Rock...

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Crystal Growth • “Rock Cycle” = fundamentally controlled by mineralogic changes caused by changing geologic environments - Geologic history of the earth - Geologic processes: * ore deposits * oil and gas * building materials * engineering hazards Mineral Stability Requirements for mineral growth: (1) Constituents (i.e. right elements - X) (2) Stable conditions (P and T) Stability • More stable “position” is one of lower energy • Change may not be spontaneous – metastable • Energy required to overcome metastability – activation energy • Measure of stability in chemical reactions – Gibbs Free Energy – G - Units are energy e.g. Calories or Joules • G always relative to some standard - “free energy of formation from the elements” - G f 1
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e.g. Si + O 2 SiO 2 - Difference in G f between 298 K and 1 atm P - G f is a function of P and T different G f if P and T 298 K and 1 atm P Reactions • Mineral Reactions are conversion from one mineral to another: • Stability of reactions determined by G If;
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Crystal_Growth_and _Phase_Diagrams - Crystal Growth"Rock...

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