1_Climate - Paleoclimate http/www.scotese.com/paleocli.htm...

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Paleoclimate http://www.scotese.com/paleocli.htm
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Climate System Forcing Climate System P R O XI E S Input Output
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Frakes, 1979 Icehouse Icehouse Icehouse Greenhouse Greenhouse Greenhouse Zachos et al., 2000 Raymo, 1994 Phanerozoic Cenozoic Pleistocene 100’s of millions 10’s of millions 100’s of thousands
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10’s of thousands Millennial Variations GISP record, Grootes et al., 1993 Time Scales of Change
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Climate System Systems approach All components of system interact Change in one will drive change in another View in terms of Cause = forcing Effect = response Record = proxies
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Climate System Components of the climate system : Atmosphere Cryosphere (ice) Hydrosphere (>97% = ocean) Geosphere Biosphere (anthrosphere) Ruddiman 1-5
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Climate Forcing Mechanisms of climate change Solar Orbital Ocean Circulation Carbon dioxide } ~Tectonics Ruddiman Changes in sun’s strength Changes in earth’s orbit Changes in plate tectonics
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Climate Forcing Solar Changes in irradiance Faint Young Sun Sunspot Activity
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Solar Luminosity Evolution of solar luminosity Dashed line = model by Endal (1981) Solid line = model by Endal and Sofia (1981) Crowley and North, Fig. 12.1
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Sunspot Cycles Irradiance Sunspots Little Ice Age Modern Cycle
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Climate Forcing Orbital variations (Changes in Earth’s Orbit around the sun) Seasonal variations (tilt of the earth) Milankovitch variations total insolation distribution of insolation on the earth’s surface
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Seasonal variations Ruddiman online chapter Aphelion Perihelion aphelion perihelion 147 mill. km 153 mill. km
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Orbital Variations Eccentricity Obliquity (tilt)
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Orbital Variations Precession (wobble) Axial precession and precession of the ellipse
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Climate Forcing Surface Circulation Poleward heat transport Salt (density) Nutrients
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Climate Forcing Thermohaline Circulation Transports of heat, salt, nutrients IPCC
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1_Climate - Paleoclimate http/www.scotese.com/paleocli.htm...

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