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3-4_atm_ocean - Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation...

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Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation Equatorial region receives more solar insolation than polar regions Primary mechanisms for redistributing heat on the Earth Atmospheric circulation Oceanic circulation Latent heat transfers
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Poleward Heat Transport Graedel and Crutzen- Atmospheric Change
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Atmosphere Similar to Ruddiman Box 2-1- online Troposphere- 8 km (poles) to 18 km (tropics) The atmosphere is heated from below
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Atmospheric Circulation Based on simple principles 1. Hot air rises 2. Rising air creates low pressure at ground level 3. Cold air sinks 4. Sinking air creates high pressure at ground level 5. Air flows from high pressure to low pressure regions As air rises and cools, water vapor condenses- rain
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Atmospheric Circulation No rotation No land Hot air rises at the equator Cold air sinks at the poles Garrison, Essentials of Oceanography LP LP HP HP
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Atmospheric Circulation With rotation (coriolis) 3 cells/hemisphere Series of gears Major winds: Trades (NE and SE) Westerlies Polar easterlies Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) - caloric equator - doldrums High and low pressure systems Similar to Ruddiman 2-16 online Hadley Cell HP HP LP LP
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Atmospheric Circulation Ruddiman 2-16 Hadley cells Subtropical High Precipitation vs. Evaporation Latent heat transport Polar frontal zone (jetstream)
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ICTZ
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Atmospheric Pressure Systems
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ITCZ
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Monsoonal Circulation See Kump, Kasting and Crane 4-21
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Surface Winds
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Surface Ocean Temperature
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Temperature- 3000m
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Ocean Circulation Garrison Structure of the ocean: Mixed Layer – stirred by wind Thermocline- rapid cooling Deep zone- constant, cold
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Ocean Circulation Ruddiman 2-25 online Depth to the thermocline varies with latitude and season (intensity of the wind) Stratification vs.
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