Therapy Part I - Therapy Part I 11-13-07 1. Therapists and...

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Therapy Part I 11-13-07 1. Therapists and their Training a. Clinical Psychologists i. Most are psychologists with a Ph.D. and expertise in research, assessment, and therapy, supplemented by a supervised internship ii. About half work in agencies and institutions, half in private practice b. Clinical or Psychiatric Social Worker i. A two-year Master of Social Work graduate program plus postgraduate supervision prepares some social workers to offer psychotherapy, mostly to people with everyday personal and family problems c. Counselors i. Marriage and family counselors specialize in problems arising from family relations. ii. Pastoral counselors provide counseling to countless people iii. Abuse counselors work with substance abusers and with spouse and child abusers and their victims d. Psychiatrists i. Physicians who specialize in the treatment of psychological disorders ii. Not all psychiatrists have had extensive training in psychotherapy, but as M.D.s they can prescribe medications. Thus, they tend to see those with the most serious problems iii. Many have a private practice 2. Types of Therapy a. Psychotherapy i. An emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties 3. Etiology a. The cause of the disease or trouble 4. Psychoanalysis a. The etiology of mental problems is deeply repressed thoughts, feelings, memories, etc. b. This repressed material can cause catastrophic damage to the psyche if it becomes conscious c. People go to great lengths to keep the repressed material out of consciousness d. That is – defense mechanisms e. Freud believed the patient’s free associations, slips of the tongue, jokes, and dreams, and the therapist’s interpretations of them – released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight 5. Resistance
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a. Unconscious defense strategies designed to keep the patient and therapist from understanding the patient’s problems 6. Free association a. Allowing the mind to wander b. Saying whatever comes to mind c. Not censoring yourself in any way 7. Dream Analysis a. Patients are trained to remember dreams b. Dreams are then analyzed to uncover he latent (underlying) meaning c. Symbols for sexual intercourse i. Climbing a ladder or staircase ii. Riding an elevator or horse or roller coaster iii. Crossing a bridge iv. Walking into a tunnel v. Flying in an airplane 8. Transference a. The patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships i. E.g., love or hatred for a parent 9. Interpretation a. The analyst’s noting dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight 10. Humanistic Theory a. Client-Centered Therapy i. Humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers b. Unconditional Positive Regard i. Therapist’s caring and acceptance of the client’s individuality regardless of what the client says or does ii. Genuineness 1. Requires therapist to let his or her inner feelings appear
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Therapy Part I - Therapy Part I 11-13-07 1. Therapists and...

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