Lecture13

Lecture13 - Water: Solving Problems in Health and the...

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Water: Solving Problems in Health and the Environment through Research and Education ( WaterSPHERE ) An Integrative Agenda using Remote Sensing, Mathematical Modeling and Field Investigations http://weblogs.sun-sentinel.com/news/politics/dcblog/Everglades%20aerial%20view.bmp Fernando Miralles-Wilhelm Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Florida International University
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http://ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/2856 1) Provide hydrologic connectivity and storage 2) Harbors of biodiversity for variety of plants and animals 3) Maintenance of water quality and pollutant removal The Florida Everglades Figure 1. Map of Everglades National Park study area 81°W 81°W 82°W 82°W 26°N 26°N 25°N 25°N Everglades National Park Area enlarged in Florida, USA Gulf of Mexico 0 30 60 15 Km Historically over 10,000 km 2 , now half of that 2 nd Largest NP in the U.S. at nearly 5700 km 2 Mosaic of different vegetative communities, but sawgrass dominant Today hydrologically altered landscape due to human modification for flood control and agricultural development Natural hydrology dominated by precip and ET, distinct wet and dry seasons Importance of Wetlands
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81°W 81°W 82°W 82°W 26°N 26°N 25°N 25°N Everglades National Park Area enlarged in Florida, USA Gulf of Mexico 0 30 60 15 Km 400 m Veg Type A Veg Type B Veg Type C 40 m Each 20mX20m pixel defined by: Vegetation Type 4 hydrologic parameters of larger 400mX400m pixel Total of over 5 million data points
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High : 100 Low : 0 High : 2830 Low : 0 0 25 50 12.5 Km ¯ High : 52.1 Low : 0 High : 102.1 Low : 0 a) b) c) d) Figure X. Classification of hydrologic parameters across Everglades National Park including a) Average number of hydroperiods per year; b) average depth of a hydroperiod (cm); c) average duration of a hydroperiod (d); and d) percent time of inundation
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Table 1. Percent coverage of dominant vegetation types found within Everglades National Park * Vegetation Type % Coverage Sawgrass 60.7 Mixed Gramminoids 6.5 Tall Sawgrass 5.8 Muhly Grass 4.1 Spike Rush 3.0 Red Mangrove Scrub 2.2 Bayhead 1.7 Pine Savanna 1.6 Willow Shrublands 1.5 Dwarf Cypress 1.5 Bay-Hardwood Scrub 1.4 Brazilian Pepper 1.2 Cattail Marsh 1.1 * Only those vegetation types constituting more than one percent of the total landscape listed Total of 56 community types (Out of 79) 52 Vegetative Communities 3 Manmade Canals Roads Structures and Cultivated Lawns 1 Open Water Sawgrass by far most abundant (66.5% of all pixels) Thirteen vegetation types make up more than 92% of total landscape One exotic community (Brazilian Pepper) found within top 13 Vegetation Dataset
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Sawgrass Figure X. Relative abundance of sawgrass for a) number of hydroperiodsper year b) mean depth per hydroperiod and; c) mean duration per hydroperiod and; d) percent time inundated for each bin. The red line indicates the relative abundance of sawgrass across the entire landscape. Black bars indicate bins which there were no data.
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This note was uploaded on 07/09/2011 for the course CWR 5104C taught by Professor Miralles during the Spring '11 term at FIU.

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Lecture13 - Water: Solving Problems in Health and the...

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