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Chapter 6 Notes

Chapter 6 Notes - Chapter 6 Learning CAN SKIP PAGES 142-148...

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Chapter 6: Learning CAN SKIP PAGES 142-148, 162-168, 245-248, 255-260, 279-285, 299-304 I. How do we learn? a. We learn by association. Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence. i. Try to associate things with positive emotions, positive associate with advertisers i.e. celebrities ii. Car ad paired with a seductive young woman, rated the car higher than the other car without the woman. b. Learning is a relatively enduring change in behavior resulting from experience c. Classical or Pavlovian conditioning i. Occurs when we learn that two types of events go together ii. Example: Smell of smoke, associated with setting off the fire alarm d. Operant Conditioning i. Occurs when we learn that a behavior leads to a particular outcome ii. Example: Running with your shoes untied, trip and fall down, don’t run with your shoes untied anymore e. *** NEED TO BE ABLE TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT!!!!!!! f. Observational Learning i. Occurs when we view the experiences of others ii. Learn to play sports better by watching others II. Classical Conditioning a. Ivan Pavlov’s Experiments: *** NEED TO BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THESE PARTS WITH OTHER EXPERIENCES*** i. Unconditioned Stimulus, US, unlearned ii. Unconditioned Response, UR, unlearned iii. Conditioned Stimulus, CS, learned iv. Conditioned Response, CR, learned b. Food (unconditioned stimulus) causes the dog is salivate (unconditioned response) c. A bell (neutral stimulus) ultimately becomes the conditioned stimulus, you can condition a response by ringing a bell to cause a dog to salivate, the dog salivating in response to the bell (conditioned response) III. Acquisition a. The initial stage in which an association is made between a neutral stimulus and an US takes place b. In most cases, the neutral stimulus needs to come before the US IV. Extinction a. When the US (food) does not follow the CS (tone), CR (salivation) begins to decrease and eventually causes extinction b. Dogs will stop salivated if there is no reward to the bell ringing, the bell is not connected to food anymore c. After a rest period there can be a pause in time, then ringing the bell again, there will be a spontaneous recovery of CR V. Examples of Classical Conditioning
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a. Sight of a lemon- learned in association makes you salivate in anticipation of sour
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Chapter 6 Notes - Chapter 6 Learning CAN SKIP PAGES 142-148...

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