Chapter 8 Notes - Chapter 8: Thinking and Intelligence...

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Chapter 8: Thinking and Intelligence Pages 331-341 DON’T READ!!! Key Ideas: -How do we make decisions? -How do we solve problems? -What is intelligence? I. How do we make decisions? a. Reasoning to draw valid conclusion i. Example: Scientist might conclude that the data supports the hypothesis through reasoning b. Two Types of Reasoning: i. Deductive reasoning is from the general to the specific 1. If A is true, then B is true 2. If all psychology text books are interesting, then I could deduce that when I picked up my text book for this class that it would also be interesting. ii. Inductive Reasoning is when you go from the specific to the general 1. Sherlock Holmes- he would gather clues and from the specific bits of information, he would induce who committed the crime. 2. Potential problem with using inductive reasoning is that people can make errors; they can gather anecdotal evidence and induce a statement that is not true. c. Decision Making i. Normative (earliest) models view humans as optimal decision makers 1. Always selecting the outcome that yields the greatest reward 2. Very controlled situation, the problem is that in real life there are other factors, have to make decisions quickly, so not very plausible ii. Descriptive (more modern) models highlight reasoning shortcomings 1. When we make errors, don’t always go with the most desirable a. Heuristics - mental short cuts i. “Rule of Thumb” always go with the same brand name, buy the cheapest or the middle price ii. “In most industrialized countries, are there more farmers or more librarians?” asked to college students, they find that students who come from a more rural background answered farmers 1. Example of an Availability Heuristic, made our decision based on the information that was available to us d. Affective forecasting: i. Researchers Gilbert and Wilson of how poor people will feel in the future ii. People are not good at knowing how they will feel about something in the future 1. Turns out to be not as bad as you thought it would be… 2. Closeness of goal: studied Olympic medal winners, not as happy if you thought you were, studied facial expressions and found that the silver medal winners were less happy than the bronze medal winners
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II. How do we solve problems? a.
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This note was uploaded on 07/09/2011 for the course PSYC 1101 taught by Professor Crystal during the Fall '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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Chapter 8 Notes - Chapter 8: Thinking and Intelligence...

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