Chapter 11

Chapter 11 - Chapter 11: Human Development Skip Pages...

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Chapter 11: Human Development Skip Pages 494-501 and 508-518 Conception: A single sperm cell (male) penetrates the outer coating of the egg (female) and fuses to form one fertilized cell. Prenatal Development: A zygote is a fertilized cell with 100 cells that become increasingly diverse. At about 14 days the zygot turns into an embryo -At 9 weeks, an embryo turns into a fetus -Teratogens - harmful substances that can affect a developing fetus I. The Competent Newborn: -infants are born with reflexes including the rooting reflex -Newborns can distinguish their mother’s odor -Optimal range 8-12 inches for visual acuity, search faces -Newborns show a preference for faces -Investigators study infants becoming habituated to objects over a period of time, you become used to it, bored with it -Preferential looking technique prefer to look at face over bulls-eye II. Brain development Promotes Learning -myelination and neuronal connections between synapses -Neuronal axons are wrapped with a fatty sheath, increasing the speed by which impulses are transmitted -Synaptic Pruning: neurogenesis, some synapses are not needed, tree with too many branches, clipping some of it off, if you don’t use certain pathways then they decay and disspear -Critical or sensitive periods are those times during which specific skills or behaviors are most easily acquired - Jeanie was raised in her closet, feral child, severely beaten for talking, wasn’t allowed to develop language -The earliest age of conscious memory is around 3 ½ years -infantile amnesia
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Chapter 11 - Chapter 11: Human Development Skip Pages...

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