PSYC 213 Notes Week 1.pdf - PSYC 213 Cognition Notes Summer 2020 Lecture 1 Introduction History of Cognition Research Ethics l Issues of ethics early in

PSYC 213 Notes Week 1.pdf - PSYC 213 Cognition Notes Summer...

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PSYC 213 Cognition Notes Summer 2020 Lecture 1: Introduction/ History of Cognition Research Ethics: l Issues of ethics early in Psychology: when experimenting on living creatures, particularly humans, it’s important to respect the rights and freedom of choice l However, early experiments didn’t address ethical concerns Examples: Little Albert l To prove the environment is more powerful than genetics, Watson designed an experiment for an infant – “Little Albert” l At first, Albert showed little fear even with burning newspaper and rat etc. l Then Watson showed Albert rat with loud noise which upsets Little Albert l After repetition of the method, Albert was not only afraid of rat but all furry things even without the loud noise l Watson concluded that it’s a success since it proves that fears are learnt not inherited l Watson later called the theory “Behaviorism” Two concerns with Little Albert experiment: 1. It’s unethical to induce fears from someone without consent. Normally children’s parents need to agree but we don’t know whether the mother acknowledged 2. Logic concern: While Watson conditioned the child to be afraid of furry items, he never unconditioned child’s fear (introduced but not get rid of) - Unethical due to negative lasting consequences surpassed actual experiments Examples: Milgram Experiment l Stanley Milgram researched on how people respond to authority l In order to understand how people induced to obey unjust decision, the experiment is conducted as following: -Volunteers are told to take part in scientific research to improve memory -Separated by a screen, the “teacher” questioned “learner” in a word game -The “teacher” administered electric shot if the answer is incorrect and was told to increase voltage with each wrong answer -The participants didn’t know the “learner” was an actor and so-called shock was harmless -2/3 of volunteers were prepared to administer fatal electric shots with courage to do so by what they perceive as legitimate authority figure- “a man in a white coat” -Milgram showed that American citizens were capable of committing crimes similar to what Germany did to Nazi l Unethical: 1. Deception is used where participants didn’t know the shock that they administrated was not real - experiment as a fail due to deception
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