Evolution and Natural Selection Notes

Evolution and Natural Selection Notes - Evolution and...

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Evolution and Natural Selection Notes Learning Objectives 1.Define phylogenetic systematics and describe what type of data are used to build phylogenetic trees. 2.Read and make inferences about evolutionary relationships from a phylogenetic tree/cladogram. 3.Explain how morphological and molecular characteristics are used to construct cladograms. 4.Explain the process of natural selection, including the roles of phenotypic variation, genetics, and fitness. 5.Explain artificial selection and pedomorphosis. 6.Use the example of canine evolution to describe natural selection and artificial selection. 7.Given information about other phyla that are new to you, use natural selection to explain evolution of those phyla. Phylogenetic Analysis (Learning Objective 1 and 2) •Phylogenies can be based on morphology –Similarity of many morphological characteristics are used (color, size, structure, etc.) •Most recent phylogenies are based on molecular similarities –E.g., similarities of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences - Phylogenetic Systematics- the study of evolutionary relationships -A phylogenetic tree (like a family tree) -Goes from past to present from bottom to top -The letters represent species ect. - The intersection between lines with a letter on them are called nodes and mean there is a common ancestor Cladograms (Learning Objective 3) Species A & B share a more recent common ancestor than either of them share with any other species. Species A & D share a more recent common ancestor than either of them share with species E or F. Species C & D shared a common ancestor in more recent times than the shared common Natural Selection (Learning Objective 4 and 6) Three basic steps: 1.Variation must exist in the population. 2.The variations must be heritable (must be genetically determined). 3.The differences must lead to differences in reproductive success
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-Relevant traits must have a genetic basis •A Plausible Scenario for Natural Selection (example) •Canids are resourceful & would have found human waste piles good foraging – wolves were living close to humans
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Evolution and Natural Selection Notes - Evolution and...

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