ch-1 - Ch1. What is Language? Suppose that without...

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  2011-1- @ I 1 Ch-1. What is Language?   Suppose that without languages, it would be…… _____________________________________ ____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ What do we know when we say we know Korean? _____________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________
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  2011-1- ¨ ∙ ‰ 2 What is Language?   (1) Linguistic Knowledge (2) Linguistic knowledge and performance (3) What kinds of grammar? (4) Language Universals (5) Animal Languages (6) Language and thoughts  
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  2011-1- c L 3 Pavlov’s experiment:  Behaviorism (B.F. Skinner)              “ unconditioned”  response                                              saliva Stimulus                          response                  “conditioned” response
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  2011-1- p V K 4 Language Learning is   habit formation ”?   “milk” [m lk] √ We are born with nothing. √ Reinforce     repetition   habit            
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  2011-1- P 5 Cognitivism: memory or  rules? (Chomsky 1975) (1)  Too rapid . = Children learn their native tongue too rapidly. (2)  Too creative . = They produce and understand the sentences they never heard or  spoken. Evidence 1)) 4-6 month : babbling  6-8 month : perceive differences in sounds (e.g.,/p/ vs. /b/) 12 month : the first word  18 month : produce about 50 words Age 2-4 : produce and comprehend sentences Evidence 2))  He  goed  home. You have too  foots . This is the house. This is the house that Jack built. This is the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the  house that Jack built.  
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  2011-1- 0 U K 6 Noam Chomsky √ Humans are born with “ Language Acquisition Device ”  and “ Universal Grammar ”. √ Language input triggers UG  and children acquire  language.  Language is essence of Human mind. Linguistics is a study of languages, i.e., human mind.  Through “linguistic knowledge”, we reveal human  mind. 
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  2011-1- 8 7 Linguistic Knowledge Knowledge of…. 1. Sounds (=Phonology, phonetics) 2. Words (=Morphology) 3. Sentences (=Syntax) 4. Meaning (=Semantics) 5. Use in context (=Pragmatics)
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  2011-1- h 7 8 Knowledge of sounds (1)  Sound inventory  Korean / , ./  English /p,b,t,d,k,g,m,n, ,s,z, , …./                                       (2)  Sound interaction What did you hear?    Please say ____ to me .   cat pad   cap pad ((Knowledge of  phonological rules )) impossible, imperfect, intact, inconvenient… that pen, that girl, good morning, sad boy…
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  2011-1- i L 9 (3) Phonetic Knowledge  of Articulation                                      “
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  2011-1- 0 e L 10 Articulation of English sounds            /i/ ‘teen’               / / ‘tin’
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  2011-1- 11 inventory Korean consonants    English  consonants  (19 C and 2 semi-C)  (24 C)
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  2011-1- X ] 12 Vowel inventory Korean vowels             English vowels
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ch-1 - Ch1. What is Language? Suppose that without...

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